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MHR 741 Study Notes

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Department
Human Resources
Course
MHR 741
Professor
Genevieve Farrell
Semester
Summer

Description
CHAPTER 4 BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS BY COMMUNICATING SUPPORTIVELY Positive interpersonal relationships strengthen immune system, help people perform better in tasks, learn more effectively Most important skill in building and strengthening relationships is ability to communicate in a way that enhances feelings of trust, openness and support Problems with electronic communication are: 1) People are bombarded with a lot of information, often poorly presented, so they ate less illing to consume all the messages aimed at them 2) No on puts all these rapid-fire messages aimed at context, so much of information lacks significance or meaning 3) Effective interpretation and use of information still depends on the relationship the recipient has with sender Interpersonal communication focuses on accuracy of information being communicated Relationship between Unskillful Communication and Interpersonal Relationships Supportive communication seeks to preserve or enhance a positive relationship between you and another person while still addressing a problem, giving negative feedback, or tackling a difficult issue Coaching managers pass along advice, information or they set standards to help others improve their work skills (focus on abilities) Counseling managers help others recognize and address problems involving their level of understanding, emotions, or personalities (focus on attitudes) Two Major Obstacles to Effective Interpersonal Communication Supportive communication engenders feelings of support, understanding, and helpfulness. It helps overcome the two main obstacles resulting from poor interpersonal communication: 1. Defensiveness One individual feels threatened or attacked as a result of the communication Self-protection becomes paramount Energy is spent on constructing a defense rather than on listening Aggression, anger, competitiveness, and avoidance are common reactions 1. Disconfirmation One individual feels incompetent, unworthy, or significant as a result of the communication Attempts to reestablish self-worth take precedence Energy is spent trying to portray self-importance rather than on listening Showing off, self centered behavior, withdrawal, and loss of motivation are common reactions Supportive Communication (Can Dicks Penetrate Vaginas Softly Cause Ojai Should) 1. Congruent, Not Incongruent A focus on honest messages where verbal statements match thoughts and feelings 2. Descriptive, Not Evaluative A focus on describing an objective occurrence, describing your reaction to it, and offering a suggested alternative a. Describe objectively the event, behavior, or circumstance Avoid accusations Present data or evidence a. Focus on the behavior and your reaction, not on the other persons attributes Describe your reactions and feelings Describe the objective consequences that have resulted or will result a. Focus on solutions Avoid discussing whos right or wrong Suggest an acceptable alternative Be open to other alternatives 1. Problem-Oriented, Not Person-Oriented A focus on problems and issues that can be changed rather than people and their characteristics 2. Validating, Not Invalidating A focus on statements that communicate respect, flexibility, collaboration, and areas of agreement Invalidating is when communication is: Superiority-oriented communication: form of put down, in which others are made to look bad so that communicator looks good Indifference: other persons existence or importance is not acknowledged Imperviousness: communicator does not acknowledge feelings or opinions of the other person Validating Communication is when communication is: Egalitarian: person of higher status interacts with person of lower status Flexibility: willingness of a person to communicate an understanding that the other party may possess additional data and other alternative that may make significant contributions both to the problem solution and the relationship Two way communication result of respectfulness and flexibility Identifies areas of agreement and joint commitment 1. Specific (useful), Not Global (nonuseful) A focus on specific events or behaviors and avoid general, extreme, or either-or statements 2. Conjunctive, Not Distinctive A focus on statements that flow from what has been said previously and facilitate interaction Refer to communicators statement immediately preceding statement Avoid long pauses, take turns speaking 1. Owned, Not Disowned A focus on taking responsibility for your own statements by using personal (I) words 2. Supportive Listening, Not One-Way Listening A focus on using a variety of appropriate responses, with a bias toward reflective responses Responses to Supportive Listening Directive Response: generally useful when Nondirective Response: Generally useful coaching when counseling Closed Response: eliminates discussion of Open Response: allows communicator, not topics and provide direction to individuals the listener, to control the topic of Listener can control the topic of conversation conversation Generally useful during early stages of Generally useful during later stages of discussion discussion Type Definition Advising Provides direction, evaluation, personal opinion, or instructions Appropriate when listener has expertise that the communicator doesnt posses helps communicator understand something that may have been unclear before, it helps identify a problem solution, and It can provide clarity about how the communicator should act or interpret the problem can produce dependence, creates impression that the communicator is not being understood by the listener Deflecti Switches the focus from the communicators problem to one selected by the ng listener used for comparison or some reassurance imply that communicators message is not important or that the experience of the listener is more significant than the communicator Probing Asks a question about what the communicator just said or about a topic selected by the listener Intent acquire more information, to help communicator say more about the topic, or to help listener foster more appropriate responses Four Types of Probing Responses 1. Elaboration probe: use when more information is needed (eg. Can you tell me more about that?) 2. Clarification probe: use when the message is unclear or ambiguous (eg. What do you mean by that) 3. Repetition probe: use when topic drift occurs or statements are unclear (eg. Once again, what do you think of this?) 4. Reflection probe: use
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