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ITM 100 Midterm Review.docx

10 Pages

Information Technology Management
Course Code
ITM 100

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ITM 100 Midterm Review Chapter 1: Information System: Set of interrelated components that collect, process, store, and distribute information to support decision-making and control in an organization. -Input: Captures raw data from organization or external environment -Processing: Converts raw data into meaningful form -Output: Transfers processed information to people or activities that use it. Data (input): can be seen as raw numbers, figures, and facts Information (output): can be seen as processed data or data with meaning Knowledge: can be seen as personalized information residing in the mind of the individual. Behavioural approach: Psy, Soc, Eco Technical approach: Management Science, Operational Research, Computer Science Socio-technical approach: Mix of behavioural and technical Data management technology: Consists of software governing organization of data on physical storage media Networking and telecommunications technology: transfers data from one physical location to another using both physical devices and software Network: Links 2 or more computers so it can share resources Complementary assets: assets required to derive value from primary investment Digital Dashboards: displays on a single screen graphs and charts of key performance indicators for managing a company. Chapter 2: Business Processes: manner in which work is organized Information systems Processes: increases efficiency of existing processes (eg. Presto) Information System Types: Supply Chain Management (SCM): manage firm’s relationships with suppliers Enterprise Systems aka Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP): Collect data from different functions and stores it in a central data depository Knowledge Management System (KMS): Support processes for acquiring knowledge Transaction Processing System (TPS): Records daily routine transactions Decision Support System (DSS): Supports non-routine decision making for middle managers and rely on powerful data analysis capabilities Management Information System (MIS): provides report on firm’s current performance and answers to routine questions Executive Support Systems (ESS): support non-routine decision making for senior managers and rely on data from a range of internal and external sources. Functional Cross-Functional Chapter 3: Organization: >Technical definition: Stable, formal social structure that takes resources from environment and processes them to produce outputs >Behavioral definition: A collection of rights, privileges, obligations, and responsibilities that is delicately balanced over a period of time through conflict and conflict resolution 5 Kinds of Organizational Structure Entrepreneurial: Young small firm in fast changing environment Machine bureaucracy: large bureaucracy in slow-changing environment Divisionalized bureaucracy: combination of multiple machine bureaucracies Professional bureaucracy: knowledge based organization; goods & services depend on expertise and knowledge of professionals (eg. Hospitals) Adhocracy: Task force organization must respond to rapidly changing environments Disruptive Technology: Technology that provides a sweeping change to businesses, industries, and markets First Mover: Inventor of disruptive technology Fast Follower: Firms with size and resources to capitalize on that technology Transaction Cost Theory: firms seek to economize on the cost of participating in a transaction Agency theory: Assumes employees are self-interested and may not always act in a manner consistent with organizational goals Business Value Chain: highlights specific activities in a business where competitive strategies can best be applied  Primary Activities – Directly related to Production and distribution of firm’s products  Support Activities – Make delivery of primary activities possible Michael Porter’s Competitive forces model: provides general view of firm competitors, and its environment  Traditional Competitors  New Market Entrants  Substitute Products and Services  Customers  Suppliers Information Systems dealing with Competitive Forces  Low-Cost Leadership  Product Differentiation  Focus on Market Niche  Strengthen Customer and Supplier Intimacy Low-Cost Leadership: Produce products and services at lower cost than competitors while enhancing quality and level of service Product Differentiation: Enable new products or services to greatly change customer convenience Synergies: Output of some units used as inputs to other units, aka two organizations pool markets and expertise. Core competency: Activity for which a firm is a world-class leader. (eg. World’s best package delivery service), Relies on knowledge gained from years of experience. Chapter 4: Behavioral Targeting: Increases efficiency of ads by using information users reveal online Ethics: Principles of right and wrong people use to make choices 5 Moral Dimensions of the Information Age; aka major ethical, social, and political issues raised by information systems Information rights and obligations: What can individuals protect? Property rights and obligations: How will intellectual property rights be protected? Accountability and control: Who is held accountable for harm done to individual System quality: What standards of data and system quality should we demand? Quality of Life: What values should be preserved in an information and knowledge-based society? Which institutions should we protect from violation? Basis Concepts Responsibility: Accepting the potential costs, duties, obligations for your decisions Accountability: Mechanisms for identifying responsible parties Liability: Permits individuals to recover damages done to them Due Process: Laws appeal to higher authority to ensure laws applied properly Privacy: Claim of individuals to be left alone free from surveillance or interference from other individuals, organizations, or the state. Opt-in model: Opt-out model: model of informed consent that permits the collection of personal information until consumer requests the data not to be collected. Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P): Enables automatic communication of privacy policies between an e-commerce site and its visitors Trade Secret: Intellectual work or product belonging to business, not in the public domain Copyright: Statuary grant protecting intellectual property from being copied for at least 50 years Patent: Grant to creator of invention giving exclusive monopoly on ideas behind an invention from between 17 – 20 years. Ethical Analysis 1. Identify and clearly describe the facts 2. Define the conflict or dilemma, and identify the higher-order values involved 3. Identify the stakeholders 4. Identify the options that you can reasonably take 5. Identify the consequences of your options Profiling: combines data from multiple sources to create dossiers of detailed information for an individual Chapter 5: Moore’s Law: Observation that computing power doubles every 18 months Observation that price of computing falls by half every 18 months Law of Mass Digital Storage: Amount of digital information is roughly doubling yearly Cost of storage falling 100% per year Metcalfe Law: value of network grows with members Computer Hardware Client Machines: Desktops, Laptops, and PDAs Server Machines: Provides access to network-based applications Mainframe systems: Used as giant servers for enterprise networks and corporate websites Virtualization: Presents computing resources so they can’t be restricted by physical configuration Multi-core processors: reduced power requirements, enhanced performance Grid Computing: connects geographically remote computers to single network Green Computing: Environmentally sustainable computing. Practice of making, using, and disposing computing and networking hardware. Open-Source: This software is free and can be modified by users Total cost of ownership (TCO) model: used to analyze direct and indirect costs to determine actual cost of specific technology implementations. Chapter 6: Database: Group of related files Database Management System (DBMS): special software to create and maintain a database and enable individual business applications to extract the data they need without having to create separate files or data definitions in their computer program. Data Dictionary: automated or manual file that stores information about data elements and characteristics such as usage, physical representation, ownership, authorization, and security. Normalization: Process of creating small, stable, yet flexible and adaptive data from comp
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