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Information Technology Management
ITM 100
Ron Babin

ITM 100 Midterms Review Date: Wed, 16 October Sm Dayan KEY TERMS: Chapter 1: 1. Business-driven information systems: systems that are implemented to support a company’s competitive business strategy 2. Business process: a standardized set of activities that accomplishes a specific task, such as processing a customer’s order 3. Business-to-business (B2B) marketplace: applies to businesses buying from and selling to each other over the internet 4. Buyer power: high when buyers have many choices of whom to buy from and low when their choices are few 5. Chief information officer (CIO): responsible for (1) overseeing all uses of information systems and (2) ensuring the strategic alignment of IT with business goals and objectives 6. Chief knowledge officer (CKO): responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distributing the organization’s knowledge 7. Chief privacy officer (CPO): responsible for ensuring the ethical and legal use of information within an organization 8. Chief security officer (CSO): responsible for ensuring the security of IT systems and developing strategies and IT safeguards against attacks from hackers and viruses 9. Chief technology officer (CTO): responsible for ensuring the throughput, speed, accuracy, availability, and reliability of an organization’s information technology 10.Competitive advantage: a product or service that an organization’s customers place a greater value on than similar offerings from a competitor 11.Data: raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event 12.Environmental scanning: the acquisition and analysis of events and trends in the environment external to an organization 13.First-mover advantage: an organization can significantly impact its market share by being first to market with a competitive advantage 14.Five forces model: helps determine the relative competitive attractiveness of an industry 15.Information: data converted into a meaningful and useful context 16.Information systems (IS): computer-based tools that people use to work with information and that support the information and information-processing needs of an organization 17.Information technology (IT): the acquisition, processing, storage, and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual, and numerical information by a microelectronics based combination of computing and telecommunications 18.Knowledge: actionable information 19.Loyalty programs: reward customers based on the amount of business the do with a particular organization 20.Management information systems (MIS): the function that plans for, develops, implements, and maintains IT hardware, software, and applications that people use to support the goals of an organization 21.Private exchange: a B2B marketplace in which a single buyer posts its need and then opens the bidding to any supplier who would care to bid 22.Reverse auction: an auction format in which increasingly lower bids are solicited from organizations willing to supply the desired product or service at an increasingly lower price 23.Rivalry among existing competitors: high when competition is fierce in a market and lower when competition is more complacent ITM 100 Midterms Review Date: Wed, 16 October Sm Dayan 24.Supplier power: high when buyers have few choices of whom to buy from and low when their choices are many 25.Switching costs: the costs that can make customers reluctant to switch to another product or service 26.Threat of new entrants: high when it is easy for new competitors to enter a market and low when there are significant entry barriers to entering a market 27.Threat of substitute products or services: high when there are many alternatives to a product or service and low when there are few alternatives from which to choose 28.Value chain: views an organization as a series of processes, each of which adds value to the product or service for each customer Chapter 2: 1. Analytical information: encompasses all summarized or aggregated transactional data, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of higher-level analysis tasks 2. Artificial intelligence (AI): stimulates human intelligence, such as the ability to reason and learn 3. As-is process models: represent the current state of the operation that has been mapped, without any specific improvements or changes to existing processes 4. Benchmarking: the process of continuously measuring system results, comparing those results to optimal system performance (benchmark values), and identifying steps and procedures to improve system performance 5. Benchmarks: baseline values the system seeks to attain 6. Business-facing processes: invisible to the external customer but essential to the effective management of the business; include goal setting, day-to-day planning, performance feedback, rewards, and resource allocation 7. Business intelligence: applications and technologies that are used to gather, provide access to, and analyze information to support people’s decision-making efforts 8. Business process improvement: attempts to understand and measure a business process and make performance improvements on that process accordingly 9. Business process management (BPM): integrates all of an organization’s business processes to make individual processes more efficient 10.Business process model: a graphic description of a process showing the sequence of process tasks, which is developed for a specific purpose and from a selected viewpoint 11.Business process modeling (mapping): the activity of creating a detailed flow chart, work flow diagram, use case diagram, or process map of a work process showing its inputs, tasks, and activities, in a structured sequence 12.Business process re-engineering (BPR): the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises 13.Consolidation: involves the aggregation of information and features simple roll-ups to complex groupings of interrelated information 14.Customer-facing processes: the result in a product or service that is received by an organization’s external customer 15.Decision support system (DSS): models data and information to support managers, analysts, and other business professionals during the decision-making process for more analytical purposes 16.Digital dashboards: integrates information from multiple components and tailors the information to individual preferences 17.Drill-down: enables users to view details, and details of details, of information 18.Effectiveness IS metrics: measures the impact IS has on business processes and activities including customer satisfaction, conversion rates, and sell-through increases ITM 100 Midterms Review Date: Wed, 16 October Sm Dayan 19.Efficiency IS metrics: measures the performance of the IS itself such as throughput, speed, and availability 20.Executive information system (EIS): a specialized DSS that supports senior level executives within the organization 21.Expert systems: computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning processes of experts in solving difficult problems 22.Fuzzy logic: a mathematical method of handling imprecise or subjective information 23.Genetic algorithm: an artificial intelligence system that mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the fittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem 24.Goal-seeking analysis: 25.Intelligent agent: a special-purpose knowledge-based information system that accomplishes specific tasks on behalf of its users 26.Intelligent systems: various commercial applications of artificial intelligence 27.Key performance indicators (KPI): measures that are tied to business drivers 28.Neural network (artificial neural network): a category of AL that attempts to emulate the way the human brain works 29.Online analytical processing (OLAP): the analysis of summarized or aggregated information sourced from transaction processing systems data, and sometimes external information from outside industry sources to create business intelligence in support of strategic decision making 30.Online transaction processing (OLTP): the capturing of transaction and event data using information systems to (1) process the data according to defined business rules, (2) store the data, and (3) update existing data to reflect the new information 31.Semi-structured decisions: managerial decisions which occur in situations in which a few established processes help to evaluate potential solutions, but not enough to lead to a definite recommended decision 32.Sensitive analysis: the study of the impact that changes in one (or more) parts of the model have on other parts of the model 33.Shopping bot: software that will search several retailer websites and provide a comparison of each retailer’s offerings including price and availability 34.Slice-and-dice: the ability to look at information from different perspectives 35.Structured decisions: operational decisions which arise in situations where established processes offer potential solutions 36.To-be process models: shows the results of applying change improvement opportunities to the current (as-is) process model 37.Transaction processing system (TPS): the basic business system that serves the operational level (clerks and analysts) in an organization 38.Transactional data: encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks 39.Unstructured decisions: strategic decisions which occur in situations in which no procedures or rules exist to guide decision makers towards the correct choice 40.Virtual reality: a computer-generated environment that can be simulated work or a imaginary world 41.What-if analysis: checks the impact of a change in an assumption on the proposed solution Chapter 3: 1. Application programming interface (API): a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications ITM 100 Midterms Review Date: Wed, 16 October Sm Dayan 2. Application service provider (ASP): a company that offers an organization access over the internet to systems and related services that would otherwise have to be located in personal or organizational computers 3. Associate (affiliate) programs: businesses can generate commissions or royalties from an internet site 4. Banner ad: small ad on one web site that advertises the products and services of another business, usually another e-business 5. Brick-and-mortar business: a business that operates in a physical store without an internet presence 6. Business-to-business (B2B): an internet-based service that brings together many buyers and sellers 7. Business-to-consumer (B2C): applies to any business that sells its products or services to consumers over the internet 8. Click-and-mortar business: a business that operates in a physical store and on the internet 9. Click-through: a count of the number of people who visit on site and click on an advertisement that takes them to the site of the advertiser 10.Clickstream data: exact pattern of a consumer’s navigation through a site 11.Consumer-to-business (C2B): applies to any consumer that sells a product or service to a business over the internet 12.Consumer-to-consumer (C2C): applies to sites primarily offering goods and services to assist consumers interacting with each other over the internet 13.Cookie: a small file deposited on the hard drive by web site containing information about customers and their web activities 14.Cybermediation: the creation of new kinds of intermediaries that simply could not have existed before the advent of e-business, including comparison-shopping sites such as Kelkoo and bank account aggregation services such as citibank 15.Digital Darwinism: organizations that cannot adapt to the new demands placed on them for surviving in the information age are doomed to extinction 16.Digital wallet: both software and information—the software provides security for the transaction and the information includes payment and delivery information (e.g., the credit card number and expiration date) 17.Disintermediation: occurs when a business sells directly to the customer online and cuts out the intermediary 18. Disruptive technology: a new way of doing things that initially does not meet the needs of existing customers 19.E-business: the conducting of business on the internet, not only buying and selling, but also serving customers and collaborating with business partners 20.E-business model: an approach to conducting electronic business on the internet 21.E-commerce: the buying and selling of goods and services over the internet 22.E-government: involves the use of strategies and technologies to transform government(s) by improving the delivery of services and enhancing the quality of interaction between the citizen- consumer within all branches of government 23. E-mail: consists of a number of e-shops; it serves as a gateway though which a visitor can access other e-shops 24.E-procurement: the B2B purchase and sale of supplies and services over the internet 25.E-shop (e-store, e-trailer): a version of a retail store where customers can shop at any hour of the day without leaving their home or office 26.Electronic bill presentment and payment (EBPP): system that sends bills over the internet and provides an easy-to-use mechanism (such as clicking on a button) to pay the bill ITM 100 Midterms Review Date: Wed, 16 October Sm Dayan 27.Electronic catalogue: presents customers with information about goods and services offered for sale, bid, or auction on the internet 28.Electronic cheque: mechanism for sending a payment from a chequing or savings account 29.Electronic data interchange (EDI): a standard format for exchanging business data 30.Electronic marketplaces (e-marketplaces): interactive business communities providing a central market space where multiple buyers and suppliers can engage in e-business activities 31.Encryption: scrambles information into an alternative form that requires a key or password to decrypt the information 32.Extranet: an intranet that is available to strategic allies (such as customers, suppliers, and partners) 33.Financial EDI (financial electronic data interchange): standard electronic process for B2B market purchase payments 34.Hypertext transport protocol (HTTP): the Internet standard that supports the exchange of information on the WWW. 35.Information reach: refers to the number of people a business can communicate with, on a global basis 36.Information richness: refers to the depth and breadth of information transferred between customers and businesses 37.Interactivity: measures the visitor interactions with the target ad 38.Intermediaries: software or businesses that provide a trading infrastructure to bring buyers and sellers together 39.Internet: a global public network of computer networks that pass information from one to another using common computer protocols 40.Internet service provider (ISP): a company that provides individuals and other companies access to the internet along with additional related services, such as web site building 41.Intranet: an internalized portion of the internet, protected from outside access, that allows an organization to provide access to information and application software to only its employees 42.Kiosk: publicly accessible computer system that has been set up to allow interactive information browsing 43.Long tail: the tail of a typical sales curve 44.Maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO’s) materials (indirect materials): materials necessary for running an organization but do not relate to the company’s primary business activities 45. 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