ITM102 Final Exam Notes

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Information Technology Management
ITM 102
Ross Mc Naughton

CHAPTER 1 ,}}[Z>9L]LL KL]L ZL}o}28 }K]L2}~ZKZZK]KKLK} transistors in an integrated circuit) roughly doubles every 18 months -more performance: processing power, risen because of increased transistor counts -decreasing costs: packing more transistors into less space, reduced their cost and the cost of the products they populate Knowledge work: involves the discovery, analysis, transformation, synthesis, and communication of data, information, and knowledge Information system (IS): an organized collection of people, information, business processes, and information technology (IT), designed to transform inputs into outputs, in order to achieve a goal Concept Definition Input Items entered into a system to transform them into outputs Process A series of one or more steps used by a business to transform inputs into outputs Output The end result of a process. Information is the result of the transformation (processing) of data. From an organizational perspective, the output of a process is a product or a service Data Raw, unorganized facts Information Processed/organized/transformed data that is useful to a person Knowledge Information plus human experience and judgment System A recognizable whole that consists of a collection of interrelated parts that interact with each other to transform inputs into outputs to achieve a goal People People or organizations that have both an interest in and an influence on the creation, implementation, or operation of an IS Information The physical components, typically hardware, software, Technology (IT) and connectivity, that make up an IS. Technology enables processes to perform the steps they were designed to accomplish collection of tools J hardware, software, and connectivity J that enable individuals or businesses to achieve their goals Decision A choice made from one or more alternatives to follow or avoid some course of action Business Value A positive return on the investment of resources that is created through the effective and efficient integration of L}2L]]}L[Z}o7]L}K]}L7]L}K]}L technology, and business processes productivity zone Internet: become an integral part of personal and business for the following reasons: communication, information, and commerce communication: generates business value by making it possible for professionals to share information both between themselves and with business partners World Wide Web (www): allows us to transfer text, images, audio, and video, as well as giving us new ways of buying and selling goods Information Overload: Commerce: an avenue for buying and selling goods E-commerce: the use of information systems, technology, and computer networks by individuals and organizations to create business value Business: any organization with one or more people who 1) decide on common goals to pursue, 2) work together to locate and organize resources, 3) create processes to achieve the desired goals business environment: complex collection of political, economic, social, and technological factors that organizational leaders must consider when making decisions regarding goals, organizational forms, and the creation of business value Types of IS found in Business: 1)Transaction Processing system (TPS): captures and processes transactions to make them available to the organization -transaction: the exchange of something of value the business produces for something in return that the business values 2)Management Information System (MIS): through processing and reporting features, it provides timely information to decision makers 3)Decision Support System (DSS): provides analytical and visualization tools to support and enhance decision making and planning 4)Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System: Integrates and standardises processes, and centralizes and standardizes the storage and management data 5)Customer Relationship management (CRM) system integrates data collection, transformation, storage, and analysis of customer transaction data, including purchases, service requests, and other forms of customer contact Globalization: modern businesses use information technology to expand their market to customers around the globe, to find lowest-cost suppliers regardless of location, and even to create 24-hour business days by shuttling work across time zones and nations CHAPTER 2 All IT devices are limited to the following capabilities: Accepting and storing data and information Performing mathematical calculations Applying logic to make decisions Retrieving, displaying, and sending information Consistently repeating the above actions many times { Hardware: the electronic and mechanical components that you can see and touch, such as your computer monitor -hardware categories include: Processing: Directs execution of instructions and the transformation of data { Memory: Temporarily stores data and instructions before and after processing -2 types stored on memory chips: long term (ROM) and short term (RAM) -measured in number of bytes (KB, MB, GB) - Read only memory (ROM): contains instructions and data that only special devices can alter -Random access memory (RAM): stores data only until they are no longer needed, or until you shut down the computer { Input: Provides the interface used for data entry into a device { Output: Provides the interface to retrieve information from a device { Storage: Stores data, information, and instructions for the long term { Communications: Connects one IT device to another
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