ITM Study Notes.docx

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Ryerson University
Information Technology Management
ITM 102
Bharat Shah

Chapter 1 Digital Firm: Organization in which nearly all-significant business processes and relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees are digitally enabled and key corporate assets are managed through digital means Significant business relationships: good relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees. Models: (page 9) Internet service firms, such as Google and eBay, are able to replicate their business models and services in multiple countries, without having to redesign their expensive fix- cost information system structure. Organizations: (page 6) Cloud computing and the growth of the mobile digital platform allows organizations to rely more on telework, remote work, and distributed decision making Business Processes: (Page 9) The unique ways in which organizations coordinate and organize work activities, information, and knowledge to produce a product or service. Ex. Developing a new product, generating and fulfilling an order, creating a marketing plan, and hiring an employees. Business Model: (Page 10): An abstraction of what an enterprise is and how the enterprise delivers a product or service, showing how the enterprise creates wealth It describes how a company produces, delivers and sells a product or service to create wealth. Canadian Rules on the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (C-SOX): (Page 12) U.S law passed in 2002 that imposes responsibility on companies and their management to protect investors by safeguarding the accuracy and integrity of financial information that is used internally and released externally. Information Technology (IT): (Page 12) All the hardware and software technologies a firm needs to achieve its business objectives. Information System: ( Page 12) Interrelated components working together to collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control analysis, and visualization in an organization Information: (Page 13) We mean data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings. Data: (Page 13) Streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand and use. 3 Activities in information System: 1. Input: (Page 13) Captures or collects raw data from within the organization or from its external environment. 2. Processing (Page 13) Converts this raw input into a meaningful form. 3.Output (Page 13) Transfers the processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used. 4.Feedback (Page 13) Output that is returned to appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct the input stage. Dimensions of Information Systems Computer based information system (CBIS): (Page 13) Information systems that rely on computer on computer hardware and software for processing and disseminating information Computer: (Page 13) Physical device that takes data as an input, transforms the data by executing stored instructions, and outputs information to a number of devices. Information systems literacy: (Page 15) Broad based understanding of information systems that includes behavioral knowledge about organizations and individuals using information systems as well as technical knowledge about computers. Computer Literacy: (Page 15) Knowledge about information technology, focusing on understanding of how computer-based technologies work. Management Information Systems (MIS): (2 meanings) 1. The study of information systems focusing on their rule in business and management. 2. A specific category of information system serving middle management. MIS provide middle managers with reports on the organizations current performance to monitor and control the business and predict future performance. Dimensions of information systems: Organizations, management, and information technology (page 15) Organizations: Senior Management: Makes long-range strategic decisions about products & services and financial performance Middle Management: Carries out the programs and plans of senior management Operational Management: Responsible for monitoring the daily activities of the business. Knowledge workers: People such as engineers or architects who design products or services and create knowledge for the organization Data workers: Secretaries or clerks, assist with scheduling and communication at all levels of the firm. Production or service workers: People who actually produce the product or deliver the service. Business Functions: Specialized tasks performed in a business organization, including manufacturing and production, sales and marketing, finance and accounting, and human resources. Culture: The set of fundamental assumptions about what products the organizations should produce, how and where it should produce them, and for whom they should be produced. Information Technology (All can be found on Page 17) Computer Hardware: The physical equipment used for input, processing and output activities in an information system. Computer Software: Detailed, preprogrammed instructions that control and coordinate the computer hardware components in an information system. Data Management Technology: Consists of the software governing the organization of data on physical storage media. Networking and Telecommunication Technology: Physical devices and software that link various computer hardware components and transfer data from one physical location to another. Network: Links two or more computers to share data or resources, such as a printer. Internet: Internet is a global “network of networks” that uses universal standards to connect millions of different networks with more than 1.4 billion users in over 230 countries around the world. Intranets: Internal Corporate networks based on Internet technology Extranets: Private intranets extended to authorized users outside the organization World Wide Web: Service provided by the internet that uses universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information in a page format on the internet. Information Technology (IT) infrastructure: Computer hardware, software, data storage technology, and networks providing a portfolio of shared IT resources for the organization. Delivery Information Acquisition Device (DIAD): (Page 19) UPS drivers use this system to track these data and when they are being transported delivered etc. Complementary Assets: (Page 21) Additional assets required to derive value from a primary investment. Organizational and Management Capital: (Page 23) Investments in organization and management such as a new business processes, management behavior, organizational culture, or training. Sociotechnical view (Page 24) Seeing systems as composed of both technical and social elements. Data Management Software (Page 25) Software used for creating and manipulating lists, creating files and databases to store data and combining information on reports. Software as a Service (Saas): Major business applications are sold online as a service then boxed as a product. Chapter 2 Systems for Different Management Groups Transaction Processing Systems (TPS): (Page 36) Computerized systems that perform and record the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct the business; they serve the organizations operational level. Management information systems (MIS): (Page 37) A specific category of information system serving middle management. MIS provide middle managers with reports on the organizations current performance to monitor and control the business and predict future performance. Decision Support Systems (DSS): (Page 38) Information Systems at the organizations management level that combine data and sophisticated analytical models or data analysis tools to support semi structured and unstructured decision making. Buisness Intellligence: (Page 39) A contemporary term for data and software tools for organizing, analyzing and providing access to data to help managers and other enterprise users make more informed decisions. Executive Support System (ESS): (Page 39) Information systems at the organizations strategic level designed to address unstructured decision making through advanced graphics and communications. (Help senior management make decisions and address non routine decisions) Portal (Page 39): Web interface for presenting integrated personalized content from a variety of sources. Digital Dashboard: (Page 39) Displays all of a firms key performance indicator as graphs and charts on a single screen to provide a one-page overview of all the critical measurements necessary to make key executive decisions. Systems for Linking the Enterprise: Enterprise Applications: (Page 42) Systems that can coordinate activities, decisions, and knowledge across many different functions, levels and business units in a firm. Include enterprise systems, supply chain management, and knowledge management systems. Enterprise Systems aka Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP): (Page 43) Integrated enterprise-wide information systems that coordinate key internal processes of the firm. Supple Chain Management (SCM): (Page 43) Integration of supplier, distributer, and customer logistics requirement into one cohesive process. Supply Chain Management System: (page 43) Information systems that automate the flow of information between a firm and its suppliers in order to optimize the planning, sourcing, manufacturing, and delivery of products and services. Interorganizational System: (Page 43) Information Systems that automates the flow of information across organizational boundaries and links a company to its customers, distributers or suppliers. Customer Relationship Management (CRM): (Page 43) Business and technology discipline that uses information systems to coordinate all of the business processes surrounding firms‟s interactions with its sales, marketing and service. Customer Relationship Management Systems: (Page 43) Information systems that track all the ways in which a company interacts with its customers and analyze these interactions with its customers and analyze these interactions to optimize revenue, profitability, customer satisfaction, and customer retention. Knowledge Management Systems (KMS): (Page 43): Systems that support the creation, capture, storage, and dissemination of the firms expertise and knowledge. Knowledge Management: (Page 43) The set of processes developed in an organization to create, gather, store, maintain, and disseminate the firm‟s knowledge. E-Business, E-Commerce, and E-goverment Electronic Business (e-business): (Page 44) The use of the internet and digital technology to execute all the business processes in the enterprise. Includes e-commerce as well as processes for the internal management of the firm and for the coordination with suppliers and other business partners. Electronic Commerce (e-commerce): (Page 45) The process of buying and selling goods and services electronically involving transactions using the internet, networks, and other digital technologies. E-Government: (Page 45) Refers to the application of the internet and networking technologies to digitally enable government and public sector agencies‟ relationship with citizens, businesses and the other arms of the government. Systems for Collaboration and Teamwork: Collaboration: (Page 44) Working with others to achieve shared and explicit goals. Teams (Page 45): Part of the organization business structure for getting things done. They have a specific mission that someone in the business assigned to them, Virtual Worlds: (Page 49): Computer based stimulated environment intended for its users to inhabit and interact via graphical representation called avatars. Virtual Meeting Systems: (Page 49) Video Conferencing and Web Conferencing technologies. Telepresence Technology: (Page 49) High end video conferencing system where an integrated audio and visual environment that allows a person to give the appearance of being present at a location other than his or hers true physical location. The Information Systems Function in Business The Information Systems Department Programmers: (Page 55) Highly trained technical specialists who write the software instructions for computers. System Analysts: (Page 55) Specialists who translate business problems and requirements into information requirements and systems, acting as a liaison between the information systems department and the rest of the organization Information Systems Managers: (Page 55) Leaders of the various specialists in the information systems department. Information systems department: (Page 55) The formal organizational unit that is responsible for the information systems functions in the organization. Chief Information Officer (CIO): (Page 55) Senior manager in charge of the information systems functions in the firm. Chief Information Security Officer (CISO): (Page 55) Where information systems security is separated from physical security. Chief Privacy Officer (CPO): (Page 55) Responsible for ensuring that the company complies with the existing data privacy laws. Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO): (Page 55) Senior executive in charge of the organization‟s knowledge management system. End Users: (Page 55) Those employees in an organization outside the information systems group for whom applicants are developed and who will use the application or systems. IT Governance: (Page 55): Strategies and policies for using information and technology within sn organization, specifying the decision rights and accountabilities to ensure the information technologies supports the organizations strategies and objections. Chapter 3 Organization (Technical Definition) (Page 67): A stable, formal, social, structure, that takes resources from the environment and processes them to produce outputs. Routines: (Page 67): Precise rules, procedures, and practices that have been developed to cope with expected situations. Disrupted Technology: (Page 70) Technologies with a disruptive impact on industries on businesses, rendering existing products, services, and business models obsolete. Transaction Cost Theory: (Page 72) A theory where firms and individuals seek to economize on transaction costs, as much as they do on production costs. Agency Theory: (Page 72): Economic theory that views the firm as a nexus of contracts among self-interested individuals who must be supervised and managed. Competitive Forces Model: (Paged 76): Model used to describe the interaction of external influences, specifically threats and opportunities, that affect an organizations strategy and ability to compete. Product Differentiation: (Page 78): Competitive strategy for creating brand loyalty by developing new and unique products and services that are not easily duplicated by competitors. Efficient Customer Response System: (Page 78): Directly links consumer behavior to distribution and production and supply chains. Ex) Walmart‟s continuous replenishment system provides an efficient customer response. Electronic Payment System: (Page 79): The use of digital technologies, such as credit cards, smart cards, and Internet-based payment systems, to pay for products and services electronically. Mass Customization: (Page 79): Ability to offer individually tailored products or services using the same production resources as mass production. Switching Costs: (Page 80): The expense a customer or company incurs in lost time and expenditure of resources when changing from one supplier or system to a competing supplier or system. Value Chain Model: (Page 84) Model that highlights the primary or support activities that add a margin of value to a firm‟s products or services where information systems can be best applied to achieve a competitive advantage, Primary Activities: (Page 84) Activities most directly related to the production and distribution of a firms product or services. Support Activities: (Page 85): Activities that make the delivery of a firm‟s primary activities possible. Consist of the organizations infrastructure, human resources, technology, and procurement. Bench Marking: (Page 85) Setting strict standards for products, services, or activites and measuring organizational performance against those standards. Best Practices: (Page 85): The most successful solutions or problem-solving methods that have been developed by a specific organization or industry. Value Web: (Page 86): Customer-driven network of independent firms that use information technology to coordinate their value chains to collectively produce a product or service for a market. Core Competency: (Page 87) An activity for which a firm is a world class leader Network Economics: (Page 88) Model of a strategic system at the industry level based on the concept of a network where adding another participant entails zero marginal costs but can create much larger marginal gains. Virtual Company: (Page 88) Organizations using networks to link people, assets, and ideas to create and distribute products and services without being limited to traditional organization boundaries or physical location. Buisness Ecosystems: (Page 89) Loosely coupled but interdependent networks of supplier, distributers, outsourcing firms, transportation service firms, and technology manufacturers. Chapter 4 Ethics: (Page 102): Principles of right and wrong that can be used by individuals acting as a free moral agents to make choices to guide their behavior. Information Rights: (Page 104) The rights that individuals and organizations have with respect to information that pertains to themselves. Profiling: (Page 105): The use of computers to combine data form multiple sources and create electronic dossiers of detailed information on individuals. Nonobvious Relationship Awareness (NORA): (Page 106): Technology that can find obscure hidden connections between people or other entities by analyzing information from many different sources to correlate relationships. Responsibility: (Page 107) Accepting the potential costs, duties, and obligations for the decisions one makes. Accountability: (Page 107) The mechanisms for assessing responsibility for decisions made and actions taken. Liability: (Page 107) Extends the concept of responsibility further to the area of laws. Due Process: (Page 107) Is a related feature of law-governed societies and is a process in which laws are known and understood and there is an ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that the laws are applied correctly. Golden Rule: (Page 108) Do unto other as you would have them do unto you. Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative: (Page 108) If an action is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone. Descartes rule of change: (Page 108) If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to take at all. Utilitarian Principle: (Page 108) Take the action that achieves the higher or greater value. Risk Aversion Principle: (Page 108) Take the action that produces least harm or the least potential cost. Ethical ―no free lunch‖ rule: (Page 108) Assume that virtually all tangible an intangible objects are owned by someone else unless there is a specific deceleration otherwise. Privacy: (Page 109) is the claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals or organizations, including the state. Informed Consent (Page 110): Can be defined as consent given the knowledge of all the facts needed to make a rational decision. Safe harbor (page 110): Is a private, self-regulating policy and enforcement mechanism that meets the objectives of government regulators and legislation but foes not involve government regulation or enforcement. Cookies (page 111): Are small text files deposited on a computer hard drive when a user visits webs sites. Web beacons (page 112): Also known as web bugs, are tiny objects invisibly embedded in e-mail messages and web pages that are designed to monitor the behavior of the user visiting a site or sending email. Spyware (112): can secretly install itself on an Internet users computer by piggybacking on larger applications. Banner ads (112): a graphical display on a web page used for advertising. The banner is linked to the advertisers site so that a person clicking on it will be taken there. Opt-in (113): model of informed consent that prevents an organization from collection any personal information unless the individual specifically takes an action to approve information collection and use. Opt-out (113): model of informed consent that permits the collection of personal information until the consumer specifically requests the data not be collected. PSP (113): Enables automatic communication of privacy policies between an e- commerce site and its visitors. Intellectual property (115): is considered to be intangible property created by individual or corporations. Trade secret (115): any intellectual work or product used for a business purpose that can be classified as belongings to that business, provided it is not based on information the public domain. Copyright (115): is a statutory grant that protects creators of intellectual property from having their work copied by others for any purpose for a period of at least 50 years. Patent (116): grants the owner an exclusive monopoly on the ideas behind an invention for between 17 and 20 years. MP3 (117): music files on the Internet for a number of years. Digital millennium copyright Act – DCMA (117): of 1998 is providing some copyright protection. Computer crime (121): is the commission of illegal acts through the use of a computer or against a computer system. Computer abuse (121): is the commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but considered unethical. Spam (121): is junk email sent by an organization or individuals and businesses. Digital Divide (123): exists in Canadian schools, with schools in high-poverty areas less likely to have computers, high-quality educational technology programs, or Internet access availability for their students. Repetitive stress injury –RSI (124): most common occupation disease today, occurs when muscle groups are forced through repetitive actions often with high- impact loads (such as tennis) or tens of thousands of repetitions under low- impact loads (such as working at a computer keyboard). Carpal tunnel syndrome-CTS (124): most common kind of computer-related RSI, in which pressure on the median nerve through the wrist‟s bony structure, called carpal tunnel, produces pain. Computer vision syndrome – CVS (124): refers to any eyestrain condition related to display screen use in desktop computers, laptops, e-readers, smartphones, and handheld video games. Technostress (124): which is stress induced by computer Chapter 5 Mainframe (142): largest category of computer, used for major business processing. Minicomputers (142): middle-range computer used in systems for universities, factories or research laboratories. Midrange computer (142): middle size computer htat is capable of supporting the computing needs of smaller organizations or of managing networks of other computers. Wintel PC (142): any computer that uses intel microprocessors (or compatible processors) and a windows operating system. Client/server computing (142): a model for computing that splits processing between clients and servers on a network, assigning functions to the machine most able to perform the function. Clients (142): the user point-of-entry for the required function in client/server computing. Normally a desktop computer, workstation, or laptop computer. Server (142): computer specifically optimized to provide software and other resources to other computers over a network. Multitiered –N-tier client.server architectures (144): in which the work of the entire network is balanced over several different levels of servers, depending on the kind of service being requested. Web server (144): will serve a web page to a client in response to a request for service. Application server (144): software that handles all application operations between browser-based on computers and a company‟s back-end business applications or databases. Windows (144): Microsoft family of operating systems for both network servers and client computers. The most recent version is windows 7. Cloud computing (145): refers to a model of computing that provides access to a shared pool of computing resources (computers, storage, applications, and services) over a network, often the Internet. Moore’s Law (145): assertion that the number of components on a chip doubles each year. Nanotechnology (146): uses individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit. Technology standards (149): specifications that establish the compatibility of products and the ability to communicated in a network. Blade servers (151): ultrathin computers consisting of a circuit board with processors, memory, and network connections stored in racks. Unix (151): Open-source operating system for all types of computers, which is machine independent and supports multiuser processing, multitasking, and networking. Used in high-end workstations and servers. Linux (151): reliable and compactly designed operating system that is an offshoot of Unix and that can run on many different hardware platforms and is available free or at very low cost. Used as an alternative to UNIX and Windows NT. Operating system (151): software that manages the resources and activities of the computer. Chrome OS (151): provides a lightweight operating system for cloud computing using netbooks. Android (151): a mobile operating system developed by android, Inc purchased by Google, based on the open handset alliances open source flexible, upgradeable mobile platform. Multi-touch (151): users use their fingers to manipulate objects on the screen. Storage area networks –SANS (154): connect multiple storage devices on separate high-speed network dedicated to storage. Web hosting service (154): maintains a large web server, or series of servers, and provides gee-paying subscribers with space to maintain their web sites. Legacy systems (155): are generally older transaction processing systems, created for mainframe computers, that continue to be used to avoid the high cost of replacing or redesigning them, but the term also refers to any older system no matter what infrastructure it uses. Netbooks (155): small low-cost, lightweight subnotebook optimized for wireless communication and Internet access. Grid computing (155): involves connecting geographically remote computers into a single network to create a virtual supercomputer by combining the computational power of all computers on the grid. Virtualization (156): is the process of presenting a set of computing resources (such as computerizing power or data storage) so that they can all be accessed in ways that are not restricted by physical configuration or geographic location. Public cloud (157): is maintained by an external service provider, such as amazon web services, accessed through the Internet, and available to the general public. Private cloud (157): is a proprietary network or a data center that ties together servers, storage, networks, data and application as a set of virtualized services shared by users inside a company. Utility computing (157): model of computing in which companies pay only for the information technology resources they actually use during a specified time period, also called on-demand computing or usage-based pricing. Green computing –green IT (158): refers to practices and technologies for designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated devices such as monitors, printers, storage devices and networking and communications systems to minimize impacts on the environment. Microprocessors (158): now feature multiple processor cores (which perform the reading and execution of computer instructions) on a single chip. Multicore processor (158): is an integrated circuit to which two or more processor cores have been attached for enhances, performance, reduced power consumption, and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks. Autonomic computing (158): is an industry-wide effort to develop systems that can configure themselves, optimize and tune themselves, heal themselves when broken, and protect themselves from outside intruders and self-destruction. Open source software (160): is software produced by a community of several hundred thousand programmers around the world. Java (161): is an operating-system-independent, processor-independent, object- oriented programming language that has become the leading interactive environment for the web. Web browser (161): is easy-to-use software tool with a graphical user interface for displaying web pages and for accessing the web and other internet resources. Ajax – asynchronous javascript and XML(161): Is another web development technique for creating interactive web applications that prevent this type of inconvenience. Web services (162): refers to a set of loosely coupled software components that exchange information with each other using universal web communication standards and languages. Extensible Markup language –XML (162): general-purpose language that describes the structure of a document and supports links to multiple documents allowing data to manipulated by the computer. Used for both web and non-web applications. Hypertext markup language –HTML (162): is a page description language for specifying how text, graphics, video, and sound are placed on a web page document. Simple Object Access Protocol (162): is a set of rules for structuring manages that enables applications to pass data and instructions to one another. Service-oriented architecture – SOA (163): a set of self-contained services that communicate with each other using XML or SOAP to create a working software application. Software package (164): is a pre-written commercially available set of software programs that eliminates the need for a firm to write its own programs for certain functions, such as payroll processing or order handling. Outsourcing (164): enables a firm to contract custom software development or maintenance of existing legacy programs to outside firms, which often operate offshore in low-wage areas of the world. Call-centre (164): an organizational function responsible for handling customer service issues by telephone and other channels. Software as a Service – SaaS (164): services for delivering and providing access to software remotely as web-based service. Service level agreement – SLA (164): a formal contract between customers and their service providers that defines the specific responsibilities of other service provider and the level of service expected by the customer. Mashup (165): Individual users and entire companies mix and match in this way to create their own customized applications and share information. Apps (165): are small pieces of software that run on the Internet, a computer, or a cell phone and are generally delivered over the internet. Scalability (165): refers to ability of a computer, product, system, or network to expand to serve a large number of users without breaking down. Total cost of ownership- TCO (166): model can be used to analyze these direct and indirect costs to help firms determine the actual cost of specific technology implementations. Chapter 6 Bit (178): represents the smallest unit of data a computer can handle. Byte (178): represents a single character, which can be a letter, a number or another symbol. Field (178): A grouping of characters into a word, a group of words, or a complete number (such as a person‟s name or age). Record (178): a group of related fields, such as the student‟s name, the course taken, the date, and the grade, a group of records of the same type is called a file. Entity (178): a person, place, thing or event about which we store and maintain information. Attribute (178): Characteristic or quality describing a particular entity. Data redundancy (179): is the presence of duplicate data in multiple data files so that the same data are stored in more than one place or location. Data inconsistency (179): the presence of different values for the same attribute when the same data are stored in multiple locations. Program-data dependence (180): refers to the coupling of data stored in files and specific programs required to update and maintain those so that changes in programs require changes to the data. Database (181): is a collection of data organized to serve many applications efficiently by centralizing the data and managing redundant data. Database management system-DBMS (181): is software that permits an organization to centralize data, manage them efficiently, and provide access to the stored data by application programs. Logical view (181): presents data as they would be perceived by end users or business specialist while physical view shows how data are actually organized and structured on physical storage media. Relational DBMS (182): represents data as two-dimensional tables. – tables are referred to as files. Records (183): actual information about a single supplier that resides in a table is called a row, rows are commonly referred to as records or even tuples. Key field (183): the field for supplier_number in the SUPPLIER table uniquely identifies each record so that the record can be retrieved, updated, or sorted. Primary key (183): the unique identifier for all the information any row of the table, and this primary key cannot be duplicated. Foreign key (183): when the field supplier_number appears in the PART table, is essentially a lookup field to look up data about the supplier of a specific part. Multimedia (184): DBMS designed for organizing structured data into rows and columns are not well suited to handling graphics-based. Object-oriented DBMS (184): stores the data and procedures that act on those data as objects that can be automatically retrieved and shared. Object—relational DBMS (184): systems are now available to provide capabilities of both object-oriented and relational DBMS. Data definition (184): capability to specify the structure of the content of the database. Data dictionary (185): an automated or manual file that stores definitions of data elements and their characteristics. Data manipulation language– specialized language (185): that is used to add, change, delete, and retrieve the data in the database. Structured Query Language – SQL (185): The standard data manipulation language for relational database management systems. Normalization (187): process of creating small, stable, yet flexible and adaptive data structures from complex groups of data. Repeating data groups (187): there can be many parts on a single order to a give supplier. Referential integrity (187): rules to ensure that relationships between coupled tables remain consistent. Entity-relationship diagram: relationships among the entities SUPPLIER, PART, LINE_ITEM, and ORDER. Data warehouse (189): is a database that stores current historical data of potential interest to decision makers throughout the company. Data marts (190): is a subset of the data warehouse in which a summarized or highly focused portion of the organizations data is put in a separate database for specific population users. Online analytical processing –OLAP (190): supports multidimensional data analysis, enabling users to view the same data in different ways using multiple dimensions. Data mining (191): Is more discovery-driven. Data mining provides insights into corporate data that cannot be obtained with OLAP by finding hidden patterns and relationships in large databases and inferring rules from them to predict future behavior. Predictive analytics (192): use data mining techniques, historical data, and assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events, such as the profitability that customer will respond to an offer or purchase a specific product. Text mining (192): tools are now available to help businesses analyze these data. Tools extract key elements from large unstructured data sets, discover patterns and relationships, and summarize the information. Web mining (192): the discovery and alaysis of useful patterns and information from the world wide web. Database server (194): in a client/ server environment, the DBMS resides on a dedicated computer. Information policy (195): specifies the organization‟s rules for sharing, dissemeinating, acquiring, standardizing, classifying, and inventorying information. Data administration (195): is responsible for the specific policies and procedures through which data can be managed as an organizational resource. Data governance (195): policies and processes for managing the availability, usability, integrity, and security of the firm‟s data. Database administration (195): a special organizational function for managing the organizations data resources, concerned with information policy, data planning, maintenance of data dictionaries, and data quality standards. Data quality audit (196): which is a structured survey of the accuracy and level of completeness of the data in an information system. Data cleansing (196): also known as data scrubbing, consists of activities for detecting and correcting data in a database that are incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or redundant. Chapter 7 Networking and Communication Trends: - 2 different types of networks: 1) Telephone networks: (page 207) historically handled voice communication 2) Computer networks: Handled data traffic - The two networks are converging into single digital network using shared Internet-based standards and equipment Broadband: High-speed transmission technology Network: (page 208) consists of two or more connected computers Network interface card (NIC): each computer on the network contains a network interface device. Built into the motherboard to enable it to connect to a network Network operating system (NOS): routes and manages communications on the network and coordinates network resources. Hubs: (page 209) very simple devices that connect network components, sending a packet of data to all other connected devices Switch: has more intelligence than a hub and can filter and forward data to a specified destination on the network Router: a communications processor used to route packets of data through different networks, ensuring that the data sent gets to the correct address Networks in large companies: Consists of a large number of these small local area networks linked to other local area networks and to firm-wide corporate networks. Powerful serves support a corporate web site, a corporate intranet, and perhaps an extranet. Key Digital Networking Technologies: - Contemporary digital networks and the internet are based on 3 key technologies: 1) Client/Server Computing: (page 210) a distributed computing model in which some of the processing power is located within small, inexpensive client computers and resides literally on desktops, laptops, or on handheld devices. 2) Packet Switching: a method of slicing digital messages into parcels called packets, sending the packets along different communication paths as they come available, and then reassembling the packets once they arrive at their destinations. 3) TCP/IP and Connectivity: (page 211) Protocol: a set of rules and procedures governing transmission of information between two points in a network Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): handles the movement of data between computers and establishes a connection between the computers, sequences the transfer of packets, and acknowledges the packages sent. Internet Protocol (IP): responsible for the delivery of packets and includes the disassembling and reassembling of packets during transmission. TCP/IP four-layered reference model (page 211) 1. Application layer: enables client application programs to access the other layers and defines the protocols that applications use to exchange data. Ex. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), used to transfer web page files. 2. Transport layer: responsible for providing the application later with communication and packet services. This later includes TCP and other protocols. 3. Internet layer: responsible for addressing, routing, and packaging data packets called IP datagrams. IP is used in this layer. 4. Network layer: responsible for placing packets on and receiving them from the network medium, which could be any networking technology Signals: Digital vs. Analog (pg. 212) - 2 ways to communicate a message in a network Analog signal: represented by a continuous waveform that passes through a communications medium and has been used for voice communication. Ex. Telephone headset, speaker on your computer, iPod earphone (all create analog wave forms that your ear can hear) Digital signal: discrete, binary waveform rather than a continuous waveform. They communicate information as strings of two discrete states: 1 bit and 0 bits, which are represented as on-off electrical pulses. Modem (modulator-demodulator): (pg. 212) - Without modems, computers could not communicate with one another using analog networks (include telephone system and cable networks) Cable modems: connect your computer to the Internet using a cable network DSL modems: connect your computer to the Internet using a telephone company‟s landline network Wireless modems: perform the same function as traditional modems, connecting your computer to a wireless network that could be a cell phone network or Wi-Fi network Types of Networks: Local Area Networks: Local area network (LAN): (page 212) a telecommunication network that requires its own dedicated channels designed to connect personal computers and other digital devices within a 500-metre radius Peer-to-peer network: (page 213) treats all processors equally and is used primarily in small networks with 10 or fewer users. (Page 213) In LANs using the windows server family of operating systems, Peer-to-peer architecture is called the workgroup network model, in which a small group of computers can share resources, such as files, folders, and printers, over the network without a dedicated server. The Windows domain network model, in contrast, uses a dedicated server to manage the computers in the network. Topology: (page 213) the way components are connected together 3 major LAN topologies: 1) Star topology: al devices on the network connect to a single hub. In an extended star network, multiple layers of hubs are organized into a hierarchy. 2) Bus topology: one station transmits signals, which travel in both directions along a single transmission segment. Most common Ethernet topology. 3) Ring topology: connects network components in a closed loop. Messages pass from computer to computer in only one direction around the loop, and only one station at a time may transmit. (page 213) Wide area networks (WANs): span broad geographical distances – entire regions, provinces, continents, or the entire globe. Consists of cable, satellite and microwave technologies. Ex. Most universal and powerful WAN – the Internet. Metropolitan area network (MAN): network that spans a metropolitan area, usually a city and its major suburbs. Its geographic scope falls between a WAN and a LAN. (page 214) Twisted wire: consists of strands of copper wire twists in pairs and is an older type of transmission medium. Used to transmit analog phone conversations, but can be used for data transmission. Coaxial Cable: similar to that used for cable television, consist of thickly insulated copper wire that can transmit a larger volume of data than twisted wire quickly. Fibre Optic and Optical Networks: consist of bound strands of clear glass fibre. Data are transformed into pulses of light. Fibre-optic cable is fast, light, and more durable than wire media, and is well suited to systems requiring transfers of large volumes of data. Wireless Transmission Media: based on radio signals of various frequencies. - 3 kinds of wireless networks used by computers: 1) Microwave systems: (page 214) both terrestrial and celestial, transmit high-frequency radio signals through the atmosphere and are widely used for high-volume, long-distance, point-to-point communication. Follow a straight line and do not bend with the curvature of the earth. 2) Cellular systems: (page 215) use radio waves and a variety of different protocols to communicate with radio antennas (Towers) places within adjacent geographic areas called cells. Cell phone: a device that transmits voice or data, using radio waves to communicate with radio antennas. 3) Wi-Fi Transmission Speed: (page 215) the total amount of digital information hat can be transmitted through any telecommunications medium is measured in bits per second (bps) Hertz: (page 215) Measures the number of cycles per second that can be sent through that medium. One hertz = one cycle of the medium. Bandwidth: (page 215) range of frequencies that can be accommodated on a particular telecommunications channel. The bandwidth is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that can be accommodated on a single channel. A channel is the link by which data or voices are transmitted between sending and receiving devices in a network. The greater the range of frequencies, the greater the bandwidth, the greater the channel‟s transmission capacity. (Page 216) Internet service provider (ISP): a commercial organization with a permanent connection to the Internet that sells temporary connections to retail subscribers. Digital subscriber line (DSL): technologies operate over existing telephone lines to carry voice, data, and video at transmission rates ranging from 385 kbps all the way up to 9 mbps. Cable Internet connections: provided by cable television venders use digital cable coaxial lines to deliver high-speed Internet access to homes and businesses. T1 and T3: international telephone standards for digital communication. They are leased. The Internet doesn‟t provide similar guaranteed service levels, but simply best effort. Dedicated lines: suitable for businesses or government agencies requiring high- speed guaranteed service levels. T1 lines: offered guaranteed delivery at 1.54 mbps T3 lines: offer delivery at 45 mbps: Internet Protocol (IP) address: (page 216) unique address every computer is assigned. Currently is a 32-bit number represented by four strings of numbers ranging from 0 to 255 separated by periods. The Domain Name System (DNS): (page 216) converts domain names to IP addresses. Domain name: the English-like name that corresponds to the unique 32-bit number IP address for each computer connected to the Internet. Internet Architecture and Governance: (page 218) Internet data traffic is carried over transcontinental high-speed backbone networks that generally operate today in the range of 45 mbps to 2.5 gbps. IPv6: (page 219) allows 128 bit addresses, a quadrillion possible addresses Internet2: consortia of agencies working to provide an new robust and high- bandwidth version of the Internet CANARIE: Canadian equivalent of Internet2 Internet Services: a client computer connecting to the Internet has access to a variety of services such as the following: Telnet: Logging onto one computer system and doing work on another File Transfer Protocol (FTP): Transferring files from computer to computer Newsgroups: discussion groups on electronic bulletin boards World Wide Web: retrieving, formatting, and displaying information (including text, audio, graphics and video) using hypertext links E-mail: (page 222) enables messages to be exchanged from computer to computer and document sharing Instant messaging and chat: interactive conversations. A type of chat services that enables participants to create their own private chat channels. Voice over IP (VoIP): (page 223) delivers voice information in digital form using packet switching over the Internet. Videoconferencing/voice communications: (page 224) participants see each other over video screens Unified communications: integrates all communications (voice, data, etc.) into one stream to allow users to switch back and forth between different communication modes Presence technology: shows whether a person is available to receive a call Virtual Private Networks (VPN): (page 225) a secure, encrypted, private network that has been configured within a public network to take advantage of the economies of scale and management facilities of large networks, such as the Internet. (page 226) Web site: collection of web pages linked to a home page Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): formats documents and incorporates dynamic links to other documents and pictures stores in the same or remote computers Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): the communications standard used to transfer pages on the web Uniform resource locator (URL): the address of a specific resource on the Internet Web Servers: (page 227) a software for locating and managing stores web pages Search engines: a tool for locating specific sites or information on the Internet Search engine marketing: use of search engines to deliver in their results sponsored links for which advertisers have paid. Matches consumer interest with advertising messages at the right moment. Search engine optimization (SEO): (page 228) the process of improving the quality of web traffic to a website to increase the ranking of the site on popular search engines and to generate more site visitors. Internet Agent Shopping Bots: (page 229) use intelligent agent software for searching the Internet for shopping information. Helps online shoppers locate and evaluate products or services they may wish to purchase. Web 2.0: second-generation interactive Internet-based services that enable people to collaborate, share information, and create new services and content online. Ex. Social networks, blogs, RSS, wikis. Blogs: (page 230) a web log, a personal website that typically contains a series of chronological entries (newest to oldest) by its author(s) and links to related web pages. Ex. Publishing stories, and opinions. Blogroll: a collection of links to other blogs Trackbacks: a list of entries in other blogs that refer to a post on the first blog Blogging: act of creating a blog Blogosphere: the totality of blog-related web sites Rich Site Summary/Really Simple Syndication (RSS): pulls website content so that it can be used in another setting. Feeds it automatically to subscribers‟ computers. Wikis: collaborative websites where visitors can add, delete or modify content on the site, including the work of previous authors Social networking: Online community for expanding users business or social contacts by making connections through their mutual business or personal connection Web 3.0: The Future Web: (page 231) the promise of a future vision of the web where all digital information is woven together with intelligent search capabilities into a single meaningful experience. Sometimes referred to as the Semantic Web Cellular Systems: (page 232) use several competing standards. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) is used outside of North America. GSM‟s strength is its international roaming capability. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA): the major standard in North America. Transmits over several frequencies, occupies the entire spectrum, and randomly assigns users to a range of frequencies over time. 3G and 4G networks (page 232) (page 233) Bluetooth: 802.15 wireless networking standard with a 10-metre area using low- power, radio-based communication and can transmit up to 722 kbps. Useful for creating small personal area networks (PANs) computer network used for communication among additional devices (including telephones PDAs) that are close one person. Wi-Fi and Wireless Internet Access: 802.11 set of standards for wireless LANs Hotspots: (page 234) consist of one or more access points providing wireless Internet access in a public place Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax): (page 235) popular term for IEEE Standard 802.16. A wireless access range of up to 31 miles and transmission speed of up to 75 mbps. (page 235) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): a system that provides a powerful technology for tracking the movement of goods throughout the supply chain. Use tiny tags with embedded microchips containing data about an item and its location to transmit radio signals over a short distance to RFID readers. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs): (page 236) networks of interconnected wireless devices that are embedded into the physical environment to provide measurements of many points over large spaces. Chapter 8 System Vulnerability and Abuse: (page 246) Security: refers to the policies, procedures, and technical measures used to prevent unauthorized access, alteration, theft or physical damage to information systems Controls: method, policies and organizational procedures to ensure the safety of the organization‟s assets; the accuracy and reliability of it‟s records, and operational adherence to management standards Why Systems are Vulnerable: (page 246-247) - When large amounts of data are stored in electronic form, they are vulnerable to many more kinds of threats than when they existed in manual form - Through communications networks, information systems in different locations are interconnected - The potential for unauthorized access, abuse of fraud is not limited to a single location but can occur at any access point in the network Internet Vulnerabilities: (page 247) large public networks such as the Internet for more vulnerable than internal networks because they are open to virtually anyone. When abuses occur, they can have an enormously widespread impact. (Read that part of the chapter/slides for other information ^^) Wireless Security Challenges: (page 248) radio frequency bands are easy to scan Service set identifiers (SSIDs): identifies the access points in a Wi-Fi network are broadcast multiple times and can be picked up fairly easily by intruder‟s sniffer programs. War Driving: wireless networks in many locations don‟t have basic protections against war driving, in which eavesdroppers drive by buildings or park outside and try to intercept wireless network traffic Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP): the initial security standard developed for Wi- Fi. It‟s not very effective. It‟s built into all standard 802.11 products, but its use is optional. Many users neglect to use WEP security features, leaving them unprotected. Uses an access point and all of its users to share the same 40-bit encrypted password that can be easily decrypted by hackers from a small amount of traffic Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2): (page 249) stronger encryption and authentication system (This part too!! ^^) Malicious Software: Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses, and Spyware: (page 249) Malware (Malicious software programs): include a variety of threats, such as computer viruses, worms, and Trojan horses Computer virus: a rogue software program that attaches itself to other software programs or data files in order to be executed, usually without user knowledge or permission. Payload: most computer viruses deliver this. Typically spread by email attachments. Worms: independent computer programs that copy themselves one computer to the other computers over a network. They destroy data and programs as well as disrupt or even halt the operation of computer networks Trojan Horse: Name is based on a Greek huge wooden horse during the Trojan War. It is a software program that appears legitimate, but then does something unexpected that may cause damage. It‟s not a virus itself because it doesn‟t replicate, but it transports viruses or other malicious codes into a computer system. SQL injection attacks: the largest malware threat. Takes advantage of vulnerabilities in poorly coded web application software to introduce malic
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