Midterm Notes.docx

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Department
Information Technology Management
Course
ITM 305
Professor
Lin Ying Dong
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1 System Analyst – Someone who solves problems using information systems technology  Needs broad knowledge and variety of skills including technical, business and people knowledge and skills. (Integrity and ethical behaviour crucial) System Analysis – Process of understanding and specifying in detail what the information system should do Systems Design – The process of specifying in detail how the many components of the information system should be physically implemented System – A collection of interrelated components that function together to achieve some outcome Information System – like other systems, contain components, and an information systems outcome is the solution to a business problem.  Information system components can be thought of as subsystems that interact or as hardware, software, inputs, outputs, data, people, and procedures.  Super system – A larger system that contains other systems  Subsystem – A system that is part of a larger system o Functional Decomposition – Dividing a system into components based on subsystems that in turn are further divided into subsystems  System Boundary – The separation between a system and its environment that inputs and outputs must cross  Automation Boundary – The separation between the automated part of a system and the manual part of a system  There are many types of information systems  5 Types of Information Systems (common systems are found in most businesses): o Transaction Process systems – Information systems that capture and record information about the transactions that affect the organization o Management information systems – Information systems that take information captured by transaction processing systems and produce reports that managements needs for planning and control o Executive Information Systems – Information systems for executives to use for monitoring the competitive environment and for strategic planning o Decision support systems – Support systems that allow a user to explore the impact of available options or decisions o Communication support systems – Support systems that allow employees to communicate with each other and with customers and suppliers o Office support systems – Support systems that help employees create and share documents, including reports, proposals and memos  Tools – software products used to develop analysis and design specifications and completed system components o Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) – Specific programming languages (Sun ONE studio for JAVA or Microsoft) o Computer aided system engineering (CASE) – Tools that store information about system specifications created by analysts and that also generate program code (Rational XDE modeller) o Program code generators – testing tools, configuration management tools, software library management tools, documentation support tools, project management tools and so on  Techniques – Strategies for completing specific system development activities o Project planning techniques, cost/benefit analysis techniques, Interviewing techniques, Requirements modeling techniques, Architectural analysis techniques, Network configuration techniques, and database design techniques Business process reengineering – a technique that seeks to alter the nature of the work done in a business function with the objective of radically improving performance  Might be asked to participate in a study to examine existing business process/procedures and then propose a solution Strategic Planning – a process during which executives try to answer question about the company such as where the business is now and where they want the business to be, and what they have to do to get there  Information systems strategic planning – The plan defining the technology and applications that information systems function needs to support that organization’s strategic plan  Application architecture plan – A description of the integrated information systems that the organization needs to carry out its business functions  Technology architecture plan – a description of the hardware, software and communications networks required to implement planned information systems Enterprise resource planning (ERP) – a process in which an organization commits to using an integrated set of software packages for key information systems (Peoplesoft, expensive) Supply Chain management (SCM) – a process that seamlessly integrates product development, product acquisition, manufacturing, and inventory management Customer relation management (CRM) – processes that support marketing, sales, and service operations involving direct and indirect customer interaction Chapter 2 Systems Development Life Cycle - process of building, deploying, using, and updating an information system  SDLC includes five phases  Predictive SDLC – A SDLC approach that assumes the development project can be planned and organized in advance and that the new information system can be developed according to the plan. Requirements well understood and well defined (Low technical risk) o Pure waterfall approach  Assumes project phases can be sequentially executed  Project drops over the “waterfall” into the next phase  o Modified waterfall approach  Tempers pure waterfall by recognizing phase overlap  Informs many current projects and company systems; work ahead  Adaptive SDLC – An SDLC approach that is more flexible, assuming that the project cannot be planned out completely in advance but must be modified as it progresses. Requirement and needs uncertain (High Technical risk) o The spiral model: early form of adaptive SDLC  Activities radiate from center starting point  Initial planning phase gathers information to make a prototype like feasibility study, high level user requirement survey, generation of implementation alternatives, and choice of an overall design and implementation strategy  Prototypes are artifacts of each phase; can have more iterative then 4  Iterative problem solving: repeats activities  Several approaches to structuring iterations  Define and implement the key system functions  Focus on one subsystem at a time  Define by complexity or risk of certain components  Complete parts incrementally o o Unified Process Life Cycle – Each phase has an iteration  Includes (4) phases which consist of iterations  Inception: Develop an approximate vision of the system, make the business case, define the scope, and produce rough estimates for cost and schedule  Elaboration: Refine the vision, identify and describe all requirements, finalize the scope, design and implement the core architecture and functions, resolve high risks, and produce realistic estimates for cost and schedule  Construction: Iteratively implement the remaining lower risk, predictable and easier elements, and prepare for deployment  Transition: Complete the beta test and deployment so users have a working system and are ready to benefit as expected  UPLC has phases through which the project moves over time, but each life cycle phase includes one or more iterations involving analysis, design and implementation for part of the system  At the end of each iteration, the project team using the UP life cycle has completed some working software that has been tested and reviewed with system users  Iterations are “mini-projects” o Iteration – System development process in which work activities (analysis, design, and implementation) are done once, then again and yet again on different system components; they are repeated until the system is closer to what is ultimately needed (Risky ones are usually done first) o Incremental Development – A development approach that completes parts of a system in several iterations and then puts them into operations for users System development methodology – Guidelines to follow for completing every activity in systems development, including specific models, tools, and techniques o UP is a system development methodology o Methodologies supported with documentation o Some organizations may not define methodologies when they develop information systems o The bigger an organization is, the more likely a comprehensive methodology is needed. o Models (separate) aspects of the real world o Models come in many forms o Physical analogs, mathematical, graphical, narrative o System development models are highly abstract o Depict inputs, outputs, processes, data, objects, interactions, locations, networks, and devices (Graphical displays like charts and diagrams) o Unified Modeling Language (UML): standard set of model construct and notations developed specifically for object oriented development o Tool: software used to create models or components o Project management software tools (Microsoft Project) o Integrated development environments (IDEs) o Computer-aided system engineering (CASE) – Computer aided system engineering tool that helps a system analyst complete development tasks o Technique - Collection of guidelines o Enables an analyst to complete an activity or task o Example techniques: Domain-modeling , use case modeling, software-testing, user-interviewing techniques, relational database design techniques UP Discipline – Set of functionally related activities that together contribute to one aspect of a UP development project; First six are deployment process, additional 3 support the development team o Business Modeling – Understand the business environment o Requirements – define the requirements that the portion of the system must satisfy o Design – design a solution for that portion of the system that satisfies the requirements o Implementation – write and integrate the computer code that makes the portion of the system actually work o Testing – Thoroughly test the portion of the system o Deployment – To make the system operational: users trained, hardware packaged & software installed o Project Management- Finalize/develop/identify risks/confirm project feasibility/monitor and control plan, schedule, communications(internal or external) o Configuration & Change Management- As project progresses, many changes occurs in the requirements, design, source code, and executables o Environment- Managing the development environment used by the project team. Includes faculties, the design of the workplace, and other places for team members to communicate and interact: configure the development tools, tailor development process, provide tech support Artifacts – The work product gotten from each discipline like (Model, model element, document, source code, and executables) Problem Domain – The area of the user’s business that needs an information system solution Object-Oriented approach – A system development approach that views an information systems as a collection of interacting objects that work together to accomplish tasks o Languages: Simula, C++, Java, C#, Visual Basic .NET  Object Oriented analysis - Defining all of the types of objects that do the work in a system and showing what user interaction are required to complete tasks  Object: entity capable of responding to messages  Object-oriented design (OOD) – defining all of the types of objects necessary to communicate with people and devices in the system, showing how the objects interact to complete tasks, and refining the definition of each type of object so it can be implemented with a specific language or environment  Object-oriented programming (OOP) – Writing statements in a programming language to define what each type of object does, including the messages that the objects send to each other  Benefits of OO development: Rationale for use in information systems  Naturalness – Characteristics of the object oriented approach that describes its match with the way people usually think about their world, that is, it conforms with people’s tendency to talk about their work and discuss system requirement in term of classes of object  Reuse – benefit of the object oriented approach that allows classes and objects to be invented once and used many times  Example: Customer class adaptability  Reused in systems where customer objects needed  Extended through inheritance to a new subclass  Reused during analysis, design, or programming Object – A thing in the computer system that can respond to messages o User interface object – An object the user interacts with while using the system, such as a button, menu item, text box, or label o Problem domain objects – Objects that are specific to a business application, for example customer objects, and product objects in an order processing system Use Case – An activity the system carries out, usually in response to a request by a user  Entry point into the modeling process Use interface object – an object the user interacts with while using the system such as a button, menu item, text box or label Attributes – Object characteristics that have values, such as the size, shape, color, location and caption of a button or label or the name, address, and phone number of a customer Methods – behaviours or operations that describe what an object is capable of doing Class – A type or classification to which all similar objects belong Instance – A synonym for object Messages – Communication between objects in which one object asks another object to invoke, or carry out, one of its methods Association Relationships – Naturally occurring relationships between objects, such as when a customer is associated with its orders Encapsulation – Combining attributes and methods into one unit and hiding its internal structure of objects (Order 123 has stuff inside) o Information Hiding – A characteristic of object oriented development in which data associated are not visible to the outside world Identity – A unique reference to an object that allows another object to find it and send it a message Persistent objects – Objects that a system remembers and that are available for use over time Inheritance – A concept in which one class of objects shares some characteristics of another class Super class – A general class in a generalization/specialization hierarchy, which can be extended by a subclass Sub class – a specialized class in a generalization/specialization hierarchy, which contains additional attributes and methods, distinguishing it from a more general class it extends Generalization/specialization hierarchy (Inheritance hierarchy) - a classification system that strictu
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