Mid-term Prep.docx

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Information Technology Management
ITM 407
Candace Grant

 12:00 to 1:00 – the mid-term – 1 hr, in class, closed book , paper based – 2 short answer questions – 1 compulsory and 1 choose from 3 – 8 marks – Case Analysis – 12 marks – Case is the London Ambulance case in your text. Applied Ethics helps us to understand how a moral outcome can be achieved in a specific situation  Recognizing ethical issues  Identifying the alternatives  Applying ethical frameworks to help make a decision  Enacting the decision. What are moral?  Explicit beliefs and practices about good and evil by means of which we guide our behaviour.  Morality applies to individuals but it can also apply to groups such as religious groups,  “My moral code tells me that these are wrong: abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment, invasion or attack of one country by another”  Someone else’s moral code may be different – how do we resolve this for a society or group? What is Ethics?  the process of determining how moral outcomes can be achieved  Through explicit reflection on and evaluation of moral beliefs and practices. What are Applied Ethics?  The practice of ethics in specific disciplines e.g. medical, legal, IT. Values - what we deem to be worthwhile fighting for.  Prioritizing of different behavioral alternatives or standards that are perceived to be possible, worthwhile, or esteemed for the individual What are some Canadian values described in the Charter of Rights and Freedom?  Conscience and religion  Thought, belief, opinion and expression including freedom of the press  Peaceful assembly and freedom of association Value System – Refers to how an individual or group of individuals organize their ethical or ideoligcal values  Core Values – Prescribe the character or attitude of an individual  Protected Values – The law  Created Values - Values we develop Morality – Beliefs and practices about good and evil by means of which we guide our behavior 3 Grounding Moral principles 1. Religion - From the point of view of institutionalized religion, stealing is wrong because it offends God or because it violates the commands of a supreme authority 2. Law - violates a law in a particular nation or jurisdiction, then the act of stealing can be declared to be wrong independent of any religious beliefs that one may or may not happen to have. Thus in theory, the law applies to everyone and does not discriminate. 3. Philosophical Ethics - Does not appeal to an external authority, either theological or legal, for justification thus potentially making this approach dependent on any one individual’s judgment. Ethics is not: • Ethics is not the same as feelings - You could still feel good doing something unethical • Ethics is not merely religion - Many people are not religious but ethics applies to all • Ethics is not merely following the law - Law can be ethically corrupt • Ethics is not merely following culturally accepted norms - Doing business in a repressed regime • Ethics is not identified with science - Just because something is technologically possible doesn’t make it ethical Integrity  Acting in accordance with your personal moral code  Enabling ethical decision-making that resonates with your personal values and morals while extending the same respect and courtesy to others that you expect  Integrity is a cornerstone of ethical behaviour in modern society Spinello’s Three Steps for Ethical Analysis 1. What is your gut feeling? 2. Arguments that defend your position: 1. Does it provide the greatest benefits for the most people? 2. Does it violate human rights or ethical duties? 3. If moral duties are in conflict which has the higher priority? 4. Does this satisfy the fairness or justice approach? 3. Implementation: 1. If a change in behaviour is recommended, should it be handled through legislation or a specific regulation e.g. policy in an organization? Two Categories of Ethical Theory Teleological: “ethics of ends”  Good over right and evaluates the consequences or the outcomes  Utilitarian – greatest benefit for the least cost or greatest number of people  Challenge – careful in focusing on consequences without means…..  Some basic moral duties: Deontological : “ethics of duty” Some basic moral duties:  Fidelity – telling the truth and keeping promises  Reparation – righting the wrongs one had done to others  Justice – distribute goods justly  Beneficence – improve the lot of others  Self-Improvement – improve oneself  Gratitude – exhibit thankfulness  Non injury – avoid injury to others Deontological : “ethics of rights”  “If one person has a right, another has a duty to respect that right” o Positive rights – entitlement to something o Negative rights – implies freedom from outside interference  Challenge o inclination to argue for new rights without considering how these rights can be morally grounded - e.g. right to have children Computer ethics is the study of how computers pose new “versions” of standard moral problems – standards in the physical world can be applied to the virtual world. A Computer’s Unique Characteristics – (Maner) Ethical problems created, transformed or aggravated by technology. Some are old problems that are aggravated by technology some are new problems. We should be aware of computer characteristics. 1. Storage – representing information digitally 2. Malleability - capable of logically manipulating inputs to produce outputs 3. Complexity – ability to deal with more complexity than the human brain 4. Speed – fast calculation and distribution 5. Cost – wide availability 6. Ability to clone – exactly like the original 7. Discreteness – small changes do not necessarily yield small changes 8. Coding – need the expertise and the technology to decode Ethical Decision Making Process Reynolds provides a 7 step process: 1. Identify the ethical issue, get the facts 2. Identify stakeholders and their positions 3. Consider the consequences of your decision, especially on the stakeholders. 4. Take various guidelines and principles into account 5. Develop alternatives. Evaluate them. 6. Make a decision. 7. Evaluate the results of your decision. Case Analysis 1. Take the ethical perspective – consider equality, justice and respect. 2. Identify the key, relevant facts. 3. Analyze the situation: – Professional standards 1. Are there professionals involved in the case? 2. Do they have professional standards they should abide by? 3. Are any of these standards being compromised? – Roles and responsibilities 1. What roles are represented in the case? 2. Are any of these roles not fulfilling their responsibilities? 3. Are there any duties not being fulfilled? – Stakeholder 1. Who are the stakeholders and how are they affected? 2. How do they benefit? 3. How are they harmed? 4. Are any of their rights violated? – Policy 1. International treaties and agreements 2. Laws 3. Regulations 4. Standards of good practice 5. Professional codes of ethics 6. Corporate policies 7. Community and personal values – Ethical theory  Arguments that defend your position: 1. Does it provide the greatest benefits for the most people? 2. Does it violate human rights or ethical duties? 3. If moral duties are in conflict which has the higher priority? 4. Does this satisfy the fairness or justice approach? 5. Are basic human virtues being compromised? 4. Report your conclusions – Clearly state your position. – Provide the facts to back up your position. – Provide reference material to back up your position. – Draw your conclusions and add some insights. Example: It isn’t right to deny employment to people who are visually challenged. We employed Bob and Sue as programmers and they are working well. Research (quote Smith, Thomas, etc.) has shown that providing people with the tools to be successful, ensures their success. Therefore we should hire qualified people who are visually challenged and provide large screen workstations, text to audio transfer equipment, electronic whiteboards. 5. Identify what changes should be made What controls our behaviour in the physical world?  Laws – enforced by governments e.g. seat belts, drug use  Social Norms – expression of the community e.g. queuing, use of public transport  Market – prices and wages  Architecture – constraints such as geography, climate, physical layout of space, population, access to resources, historical experience, e.g. different in different countries – Canada versus the UK How can this be applied to the virtual world?  Laws – such as copyright, patents, child pornography laws  Social Norms – such as acceptability of Spam e.g. USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS  Market – Search Engine rules determine who gets to the top of the search list  Architecture – effect of: – Cookies – Filters – Encryption – Digital Rights Management Software that protects copyright A Profession is a calling that requires: • Specialized knowledge • Oath to code of ethics • Is normally self-governed by a professional body • Entry is limited by legislation or practice/apprentice - license /certification Canadian Legal Perspective • IT workers are not recognized as professionals in Canada (or elsewhere for the most part…) • They are not licensed or regulated • IT workers are not (normally) liable for malpractice • There are some elements of professionalism (i.e. “certifications” or “designations” that do exist – i.e. PMP, CMC) • No self-governing body Relationship with Responsibility Employers Protect the organization from issues arising from the unethical or illegal use of information and technology Clients Understand users’ needs and capabilities and deliver products and services that best meet those needs Suppliers Fair disclosure, fair contracts, reasonable demands IT users Set an example and enforce ethical use of IT e.g. software piracy, security, privacy, Other IT professionals Adherence to a profession’s code of conduct. Issues: résumé inflation, inappropriate sharing of corporate information Society at large Set an example of ethical use of IT e.g. IP, pornography, cybercrime, Five Criteria that Define a Profession  Knowledge and skills – The “body of knowledge” – Body of knowledge can be acquired through training and education – Certain number of years of practical experience – Higher education – Coaching by senior members – Continuous professional development  Concept of service and social interest – In the relevant discipline – Knowledge and experience available for a fee – Service ethos: service clients needs which they subordinate to their own self interest – Keep broader social interests and needs in mind when serving individual clients  Ethical norms – “Code of Practice” – Recognized ethical norms which define what is proper and
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