ITM 102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Management Information System, Enterprise Resource Planning, Random-Access Memory

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transistors in an integrated circuit) roughly doubles every 18 months
-more performance: processing power, risen because of increased transistor counts
-decreasing costs: packing more transistors into less space, reduced their cost and the cost of the products they
Knowledge work: involves the discovery, analysis, transformation, synthesis, and communication of data, information,
and knowledge
Information system (IS): an organized collection of people, information, business processes, and information technology
(IT), designed to transform inputs into outputs, in order to achieve a goal
Items entered into a system to transform them into outputs
A series of one or more steps used by a business to transform
inputs into outputs
The end result of a process. Information is the result of the
transformation (processing) of data. From an organizational
perspective, the output of a process is a product or a service
Raw, unorganized facts
Processed/organized/transformed data that is useful to a person
Information plus human experience and judgment
A recognizable whole that consists of a collection of
interrelated parts that interact with each other to
transform inputs into outputs to achieve a goal
People or organizations that have both an interest in and
an influence on the creation, implementation, or
operation of an IS
Technology (IT)
The physical components, typically hardware, software,
and connectivity, that make up an IS. Technology enables
processes to perform the steps they were designed to
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Æproductivity zone
Internet: become an integral part of personal and business for the following reasons: communication, information, and
communication: generates business value by making it possible for professionals to share information both between
themselves and with business partners
World Wide Web (www): allows us to transfer text, images, audio, and video, as well as giving us new ways of buying
and selling goods
Information Overload:
Commerce: an avenue for buying and selling goods
E-commerce: the use of information systems, technology, and computer networks by individuals and organizations to
create business value
Business: any organization with one or more people who 1) decide on common goals to pursue, 2) work together to
locate and organize resources, 3) create processes to achieve the desired goals
business environment: complex collection of political, economic, social, and technological factors that organizational
leaders must consider when making decisions regarding goals, organizational forms, and the creation of business value
collection of tools t hardware, software, and
connectivity t that enable individuals or businesses to
achieve their goals
A choice made from one or more alternatives to follow
or avoid some course of action
Business Value
A positive return on the investment of resources that is
created through the effective and efficient integration of
technology, and business processes
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Types of IS found in Business:
1)Transaction Processing system (TPS): captures and processes transactions to make them available to the organization
-transaction: the exchange of something of value the business produces for something in return that the business values
2)Management Information System (MIS): through processing and reporting features, it provides timely information to
decision makers
3)Decision Support System (DSS): provides analytical and visualization tools to support and enhance decision making and
4)Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System: Integrates and standardises processes, and centralizes and standardizes
the storage and management data
5)Customer Relationship management (CRM) system integrates data collection, transformation, storage, and analysis of
customer transaction data, including purchases, service requests, and other forms of customer contact
Globalization: modern businesses use information technology to expand their market to customers around the globe, to
find lowest-cost suppliers regardless of location, and even to create 24-hour business days by shuttling work across time
zones and nations
All IT devices are limited to the following capabilities:
Accepting and storing data and information
Performing mathematical calculations
Applying logic to make decisions
Retrieving, displaying, and sending information
Consistently repeating the above actions many times
Hardware: the electronic and mechanical components that you can see and touch, such as your computer
-hardware categories include:
Processing: Directs execution of instructions and the transformation of data
{ Memory: Temporarily stores data and instructions before and after processing
-2 types stored on memory chips: long term (ROM) and short term (RAM)
-measured in number of bytes (KB, MB, GB)
- Read only memory (ROM): contains instructions and data that only special devices can alter
-Random access memory (RAM): stores data only until they are no longer needed, or until you shut down the
{ Input: Provides the interface used for data entry into a device
{ Output: Provides the interface to retrieve information from a device
{ Storage: Stores data, information, and instructions for the long term
{ Communications: Connects one IT device to another
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