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ITM 207 Study Guide - Hypermedia, Grid Computing, Utility Computing

Information Technology Management
Course Code
ITM 207
Mosey Nicholas J

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Ajax, 161- (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is another Web development
technique for creating interactive Web applications that prevent this type of
Android, 151- a mobile operating system developed by Android, Inc. (purchased by
Google), based on the Open Handset Alliance’s open source flexible, upgradeable,
mobile device platform
Application server, 144- application server software handles all application
operations between a user and an organization’s back-end business systems
Apps, 165- are small pieces of software that run on the Internet, a computer, or a cell
phone and are generally delivered over the Internet
Autonomic computing, 158- is an industry-wide effort to develop systems that can
configure themselves, optimize and tune themselves, heal themselves when broken, and
protect themselves from outside intruders and self-destruction
Blade servers, 151- mentioned in the chapter-opening case, are ultrathin computers
consisting of a circuit board with processors, memory, and network connections stored in
Chrome OS, 151- provides a lightweight operating system for cloud computing using
Call centre, 164- Offshore outsourcing firms have primarily provided lower-level
maintenance, data entry, and call-centre operations
Clients, 142- desktop or laptop computers called clients
Client/ server computing, 142- desktop or laptop computers called clients are
networked to powerful server computers that provide the client computers with a variety
of services and capabilities
Cloud computing, 145- refers to a model of computing that provides access to a
shared pool of computing resources (computers, storage, applications, and services)
over a network, often the Internet
Extensible Markup Language (XML), 162- stands for Extensible Markup Language.
This language was developed in 1996 by the World Wide Web as a more powerful and
flexible markup language than hypertext markup language
Graphical user interface, 161- for displaying Web pages and for accessing the Web
and other Internet resources
Green computing (green IT), 158- Refers to practices and technologies for
designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated
devices such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and
communications systems to minimize impact on the environment
Grid computing, 155- Applying the resources of many computers in a network to a
single problem
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), 162- Page description language for creating
Web pages and other hypermedia documents
Java, 161- is an operating-system-independent, processor-independent, object-
oriented programming language that has become the leading interactive environment for
the Web
Legacy systems, 155- generally older transaction processing systems, created for
mainframe computers, that continue to be used to avoid the high cost of replacing or
redesigning them; but the term also refers to any older system no matter what
infrastructure it uses
Linux, 151- its inexpensive and robust open source relative.. an operating system
Mainframe, 142- The introduction
Mashup, 165- composite software applications that depend on high-speed networks,
universal communication standards, and open-source code
Microprocessors, 158- Integrated circuit technology that integrates the computer’s
memory, logic, and control on a single chip
Midrange computer, 142- middle-sized computer that is capable of supporting the
computing needs of smaller organizations or of managing networks of other computers
Minicomputers, 142- middle-range computer used in systems for universities,
factories, or research laboratories
Moore’s Law, 145- Assertion that the number of components on a chip doubles each
Multicore processor, 158- Integrated circuit to which two or more processors have
been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption, and more
efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks
Multitiered (N-tier) client/ server architecture, 144- client/server network in which
the work of the entire network is balanced over several different levels of servers
Multitouch, 151- an interface in which users use their fingers to manipulate objects
on the screen
Nanotechnology, 146- technology that builds structures and processes based on the
manipulation of individual atoms and molecules
Netbook, 155- small low-cost, lightweight subnotebook optimized for wireless
communication and Internet access
Object-oriented programming, 161- an approach to software development that
combines data and procedures into a single object
On-demand computing, 157- firms offloading peak demand for computing power to
remote, large-scale data processing centres, investing just enough to handle average
processing loads and paying for only as much additional computing power as the market
demands. Also called utility computing
Open source software, 160- software that provides free access to its program code,
allowing users to modify the program code to make improvements or fix errors
Operating system, 151- software that manages the resources and activities of the
Outsourcing, 164- the practice of contracting computer centre operations,
telecommunications networks, or applications development to external vendors
Private cloud, 157- a proprietary network or a data centre that ties together servers,
storage, networks, data, and applications as a set of virtualized services that are shared
by users inside a company
Public cloud, 157- a cloud maintained by an external service provider, accessed
through the Internet, and available to the general public
Scalability, 165- the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a
larger number of users without breaking down
Server, 142- computer specifically optimized to provide software and other resources
to other computers over a network
Service level agreement (SLA), 164- formal contract between the customers and
their service providers that defines the specific responsibilities of the service provider
and the level of service expected by the customer
Service-oriented architecture (SOA), 163- software architecture of a firm built on a
collection of software programs that communicate with eachother to perform assigned
tasks to create a working software application
Simple Object Access Protocol, 162- set of rules that allows Web services
applications to pass data and instructions to one another
Software as a Service (SaaS), 164-
Software package, 164- a prewritten, precoded, commercially available set of
programs that eliminates the need to write software programs for certain functions
Storage area network (SAN), 154- A high-speed network dedicated to storage that
connects different kinds of storage devices, such as tape libraries and disk arrays, so
they can be shared by multiple servers
Technology standards, 149- specifications that establish the compatibility of products
and the ability to communicate in a network
Total cost of ownership (TCO), 166- designates the total cost of owning technology
resources, including initial purchase costs, the cost of hardware and software upgrades,
maintenance, technical support, and training
Unix, 151- open-sourced operating system for all types of computers, which is
machine independent and supports multiuser processing, multitasking, and networking.
Usedi n high-end workstations and servers
Utility computing, 157- Model of computing in which companies pay only for the
information technology resources they actually use during a specified time period. Also
called on-demand computing or usage-based pricing
Virtualization, 156- presenting a set of computing resources so that they can all be
accessed in ways that are not restricted by physical configuration or geographic location
Web browser, 161- an easy-to-use software tool for accessing the World Wide Web
and the Internet
Web hosting service, 154- company with large Web server computers to maintain the
Web sites of fee-paying subscribers
Web server, 144- software that manages requests for Web pages on the computer
where they are stored and that delivers the page to the user’s computer
Web services, 162- set of universal standards using Internet technology for
integrating different applications from different sources without time-consuming custom
coding. Used for linking systems of different organizations or for linking disparate
systems within the same organization
Windows, 144- Microsoft family of operating systems for both network servers and
client computers. The most recent version is Windows 8.. book says Windows 7
Wintel PC, 142- Any computer that uses Intel microprocessors (or compatible
processors) and a Windows operating system