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ITM 305 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Software Development Process, Systems Development Life Cycle, Project Management Software

Information Technology Management
Course Code
ITM 305
Lin Ying Dong
Study Guide

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Chapter 1
System Analyst Someone who solves problems using information systems technology
Needs broad knowledge and variety of skills including technical, business and people knowledge
and skills. (Integrity and ethical behaviour crucial)
System Analysis Process of understanding and specifying in detail what the information system should
Systems Design The process of specifying in detail how the many components of the information
system should be physically implemented
System A collection of interrelated components that function together to achieve some outcome
Information System like other systems, contain components, and an information systems outcome is
the solution to a business problem.
Information system components can be thought of as subsystems that interact or as hardware,
software, inputs, outputs, data, people, and procedures.
Super system A larger system that contains other systems
Subsystem A system that is part of a larger system
o Functional Decomposition Dividing a system into components based on subsystems
that in turn are further divided into subsystems
System Boundary The separation between a system and its environment that inputs and
outputs must cross
Automation Boundary The separation between the automated part of a system and the
manual part of a system
There are many types of information systems
5 Types of Information Systems (common systems are found in most businesses):
o Transaction Process systems Information systems that capture and record
information about the transactions that affect the organization
o Management information systems Information systems that take information
captured by transaction processing systems and produce reports that managements
needs for planning and control
o Executive Information Systems Information systems for executives to use for
monitoring the competitive environment and for strategic planning
o Decision support systems Support systems that allow a user to explore the impact of
available options or decisions
o Communication support systems Support systems that allow employees to
communicate with each other and with customers and suppliers
o Office support systems Support systems that help employees create and share
documents, including reports, proposals and memos
Tools software products used to develop analysis and design specifications and completed
system components
o Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) Specific programming languages (Sun
ONE studio for JAVA or Microsoft)
o Computer aided system engineering (CASE) Tools that store information about
system specifications created by analysts and that also generate program code (Rational
XDE modeller)
o Program code generators testing tools, configuration management tools, software
library management tools, documentation support tools, project management tools and
so on

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Techniques Strategies for completing specific system development activities
o Project planning techniques, cost/benefit analysis techniques, Interviewing techniques,
Requirements modeling techniques, Architectural analysis techniques, Network
configuration techniques, and database design techniques
Business process reengineering a technique that seeks to alter the nature of the work done in a
business function with the objective of radically improving performance
Might be asked to participate in a study to examine existing business process/procedures and
then propose a solution
Strategic Planning a process during which executives try to answer question about the company such
as where the business is now and where they want the business to be, and what they have to do to get
Information systems strategic planning The plan defining the technology and applications that
information systems function needs to support that organization’s strategic plan
Application architecture plan A description of the integrated information systems that the
organization needs to carry out its business functions
Technology architecture plan a description of the hardware, software and communications
networks required to implement planned information systems
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) a process in which an organization commits to using an integrated
set of software packages for key information systems (Peoplesoft, expensive)
Supply Chain management (SCM) a process that seamlessly integrates product development, product
acquisition, manufacturing, and inventory management
Customer relation management (CRM) processes that support marketing, sales, and service operations
involving direct and indirect customer interaction
Chapter 2
Systems Development Life Cycle - process of building, deploying, using, and updating an information
SDLC includes five phases
Predictive SDLC A SDLC approach that assumes the development project can be planned and
organized in advance and that the new information system can be developed according to the
plan. Requirements well understood and well defined (Low technical risk)

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o Pure waterfall approach
Assumes project phases can be sequentially executed
Project drops over the “waterfall” into the next phase
o Modified waterfall approach
Tempers pure waterfall by recognizing phase overlap
Informs many current projects and company systems; work ahead
Adaptive SDLC An SDLC approach that is more flexible, assuming that the project cannot be
planned out completely in advance but must be modified as it progresses. Requirement and
needs uncertain (High Technical risk)
o The spiral model: early form of adaptive SDLC
Activities radiate from center starting point
Initial planning phase gathers information to make a prototype like feasibility
study, high level user requirement survey, generation of implementation
alternatives, and choice of an overall design and implementation strategy
Prototypes are artifacts of each phase; can have more iterative then 4
Iterative problem solving: repeats activities
Several approaches to structuring iterations
Define and implement the key system functions
Focus on one subsystem at a time
Define by complexity or risk of certain components
Complete parts incrementally
o Unified Process Life Cycle Each phase has an iteration
Includes (4) phases which consist of iterations
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