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ITM 407 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Digital Rights Management, Professional Code Of Quebec, Copyright Infringement

Information Technology Management
Course Code
ITM 407
Candace Grant
Study Guide

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12:00 to 1:00 the mid-term
1 hr, in class, closed book , paper based
2 short answer questions 1 compulsory and 1 choose from 3 8 marks
Case Analysis 12 marks
Case is the London Ambulance case in your text.
Applied Ethics helps us to understand how a moral outcome can be achieved in a specific situation
Recognizing ethical issues
Identifying the alternatives
Applying ethical frameworks to help make a decision
Enacting the decision.
What are moral?
Explicit beliefs and practices about good and evil by means of which we guide our behaviour.
Morality applies to individuals but it can also apply to groups such as religious groups,
“My moral code tells me that these are wrong: abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment,
invasion or attack of one country by another”
Someone else’s moral code may be different – how do we resolve this for a society or group?
What is Ethics?
the process of determining how moral outcomes can be achieved
Through explicit reflection on and evaluation of moral beliefs and practices.
What are Applied Ethics?
The practice of ethics in specific disciplines e.g. medical, legal, IT.
Values - what we deem to be worthwhile fighting for.
Prioritizing of different behavioral alternatives or standards that are perceived to be possible,
worthwhile, or esteemed for the individual
What are some Canadian values described in the Charter of Rights and Freedom?
Conscience and religion
Thought, belief, opinion and expression including freedom of the press
Peaceful assembly and freedom of association
Value System Refers to how an individual or group of individuals organize their ethical or ideoligcal
Core Values Prescribe the character or attitude of an individual
Protected Values The law
Created Values - Values we develop
Morality Beliefs and practices about good and evil by means of which we guide our behavior
3 Grounding Moral principles
1. Religion - From the point of view of institutionalized religion, stealing is wrong because it
offends God or because it violates the commands of a supreme authority
2. Law - violates a law in a particular nation or jurisdiction, then the act of stealing can be declared
to be wrong independent of any religious beliefs that one may or may not happen to have. Thus
in theory, the law applies to everyone and does not discriminate.
3. Philosophical Ethics - Does not appeal to an external authority, either theological or legal, for
justification thus potentially making this approach dependent on any one individual’s judgment.

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Ethics is not:
Ethics is not the same as feelings - You could still feel good doing something unethical
Ethics is not merely religion - Many people are not religious but ethics applies to all
Ethics is not merely following the law - Law can be ethically corrupt
Ethics is not merely following culturally accepted norms - Doing business in a repressed regime
Ethics is not identified with science - Just because something is technologically possible doesn’t
make it ethical
Acting in accordance with your personal moral code
Enabling ethical decision-making that resonates with your personal values and morals while
extending the same respect and courtesy to others that you expect
Integrity is a cornerstone of ethical behaviour in modern society
Spinello’s Three Steps for Ethical Analysis
1. What is your gut feeling?
2. Arguments that defend your position:
1. Does it provide the greatest benefits for the most people?
2. Does it violate human rights or ethical duties?
3. If moral duties are in conflict which has the higher priority?
4. Does this satisfy the fairness or justice approach?
3. Implementation:
1. If a change in behaviour is recommended, should it be handled through legislation or a
specific regulation e.g. policy in an organization?
Two Categories of Ethical Theory
Teleological: “ethics of ends”
Good over right and evaluates the consequences or the outcomes
Utilitarian greatest benefit for the least cost or greatest number of people
Challenge careful in focusing on consequences without means…..
Some basic moral duties:
Deontological : “ethics of duty”
Some basic moral duties:
Fidelity telling the truth and keeping promises
Reparation righting the wrongs one had done to others
Justice distribute goods justly
Beneficence improve the lot of others
Self-Improvement improve oneself
Gratitude exhibit thankfulness
Non injury avoid injury to others
Deontological : “ethics of rights”
“If one person has a right, another has a duty to respect that right
o Positive rights entitlement to something
o Negative rights implies freedom from outside interference

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o inclination to argue for new rights without considering how these rights can be morally
grounded - e.g. right to have children
Computer ethics is the study of how computers pose new “versions” of standard moral problems
standards in the physical world can be applied to the virtual world.
A Computer’s Unique Characteristics – (Maner) Ethical problems created, transformed or aggravated by
technology. Some are old problems that are aggravated by technology some are new problems. We
should be aware of computer characteristics.
1. Storage representing information digitally
2. Malleability - capable of logically manipulating inputs to produce outputs
3. Complexity ability to deal with more complexity than the human brain
4. Speed fast calculation and distribution
5. Cost wide availability
6. Ability to clone exactly like the original
7. Discreteness small changes do not necessarily yield small changes
8. Coding need the expertise and the technology to decode
Ethical Decision Making Process
Reynolds provides a 7 step process:
1. Identify the ethical issue, get the facts
2. Identify stakeholders and their positions
3. Consider the consequences of your decision, especially on the stakeholders.
4. Take various guidelines and principles into account
5. Develop alternatives. Evaluate them.
6. Make a decision.
7. Evaluate the results of your decision.
Case Analysis
1. Take the ethical perspective consider equality, justice and respect.
2. Identify the key, relevant facts.
3. Analyze the situation:
Professional standards
1. Are there professionals involved in the case?
2. Do they have professional standards they should abide by?
3. Are any of these standards being compromised?
Roles and responsibilities
1. What roles are represented in the case?
2. Are any of these roles not fulfilling their responsibilities?
3. Are there any duties not being fulfilled?
1. Who are the stakeholders and how are they affected?
2. How do they benefit?
3. How are they harmed?
4. Are any of their rights violated?
1. International treaties and agreements
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