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Midterm

Midterm Review Notes.docx

12 Pages
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Department
Journalism
Course Code
JRN 401
Professor
Paige Ellis

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JRN 401 The History of Journalism Week 1 - Oral spreading of news secret news = manuscripts mechanical or printed news Broadsides (sensational news) financial news the public sphereNews, revolution and politics penny press telegraph and news agencies First mass medium radio newstelevision news the internet and a universe of choice - News = social medium, organizes world in substantial ways - Technology = factor but does not determine everything, way in which technology is implemented is up to us Culture and imagination Economics Ideology Power relations Precedent - Major effects of news 1. Changing boundary between public and private (evolution of publicness) 2. The changing organization of time and space through media 3. Aggregation and disaggregation of audiences and content Gutenberg and the printing press - Chinese movable type Week 2: Early News in Print (Broadsides)1500-1700 - Broadsides Earliest form of printed news Irregular + entrepreneurial, disaggregated form (one event at a time) Columbus letters = best sellers, allowed news of discovery to get out (late 1400s) Martin Luthers 95 Theses (challenge power of Catholic church) early 1500s Early print very sensationalistic focus on murder and other crimes, royalty Journalist techniques Direct dialogue but no witness Innocence vs. evil Narrative/emotional closure Morals Lessons of obedience of religious and political authorities - The first newspaper appeared early 1600s Newspaper = regular and frequent publication, several items, consistent title outside of news, generally available Concentrated in cities that are important for trade or politics Steady stream of work and income, more journalistic printing First English newspaper in 1620s, Amsterdam - Propaganda and censorship Government saw value and danger Self serving propaganda and censorship Germany 1420 = prior censorship France, material considered defamatory subject to flogging, death penalty on second offence Britain licensing = mid 1600s Enforce for 150years, break during English Civil war Printing restricted to London Oxford and Cambridge ENGLISH CIVIL WAR Censorship broke down Organizations take shots at each other, report on civil war Marchamont Nedham Began as editor of pro-Cromwell, switched to royalists for better pay, arrested by Croms when they won, returned to Cromwell camp and only two newspapers were allowed to appear Foreign news = less controversial + publishing in places with less press control and sneaking them in French hybrid news system main subject was corruption and depravity at court, collective news creating public opinion Week 3: The Public Sphere - Glorious revolution = William of Orange deposed James II in late 1600s William supported by Parliament, 1695 the Licensing Act lapsed ended censorship - The Coffee Houses Introduced around 1650 1700 = 3000 coffee houses in London, patrons = well-to-do men - Lloyds Coffee House - Habermas The public came into existence The public sphere = open discussion and debate Journalism gave sense of self Occupied social space between state/monarch and family Members of public sphere engaged in rational-critical debate Public judges + criticizes actions of those in authority Anyone can participate, tolerance for dissenting views is crucial Absence of censorship and regular availability of publications deal with matters of public interest Connection b/w reading and debate + news as a social medium - Thompson Traditional publicness of co-presence by succeeded by mediated publicness Creation of public without a place = virtual public Characteristics of mediated publicness o Dialogical vs. non-dialogical o Produce dialogue lead to dialogue o Internet brought about mediated publicness = interactive, rather than one-way - Critical of Habermas Who was left out of the public sphere Women Working class Idea emerged of various publics counter publics - Institutionalization of Political Papers Political papers appear regularly, matters of government become part of public - The Spectator Paid circulation of 3000, est. 60,000 daily readers Lots of different people write as Mr. Spectat
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