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Final

Chapter 3 Exam Notes

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Department
Law and Business
Course
LAW 122
Professor
Henry Ojambo
Semester
Winter

Description
George Nico Business Law (Exam Notes) Chapter 3: Introduction to Torts Tort Law: Definition ­ A tort is a failure to fulfill a private obligation imposed by law ­  Tortfeasor  is a person who commits a tort ­ Tort law includes almost every sort of private law wrong outside of breach of contract ­ Tort law discourages people from committing private wrongs by requiring them to compensate  victims Tort and Crimes ­ Same event may be both a tort and a crime o Eg. Beating is both tort of battery and crime of assault Tort and Contracts ­ Both involve primary and secondary obligations o Breach of primary obligation creates secondary duty  Tort: • Primary duty: do not harm another • Secondary duty: compensatory damages  Contract: • Primary duty: fulfill your promises • Secondary duty: compensatory damages Types of Torts George Nico Business Law (Exam Notes) ­ Torts law tries to balance competing interests Choosing between and … Freedom of choice Deterring harmful behavior Encouraging innovation and efficiency Compensating for injury due to manufactured goods Controlling activities that threaten physicaShowing more leniency for economic risks harm ­ Tort law therefore focuses on mental culpability, on basis of strict liability, intention, or  carelessness Intentional Torts ­ Occur when a person intentionally acts in certain ways ­ Meaning of “intention” differs depending on tort: o Some require intention to harm plaintiff  Protects financial interests from purposeful harm • Eg. Inducing breach of contract, intimidation o Some require only intention to act a certain way  Protects valuable interests such as physical safety and freedom • Eg. Battery, false imprisonment Negligence Torts ­ Occurs when a person acts carelessly o Eg. Negligence, product liability, professional negligence, occupier’s liability, nuisance ­ Activity is permitted if reasonable in circumstances Strict Liability Torts ­ Liability regardless of intention or carelessness George Nico Business Law (Exam Notes) ­ Create special problems for risk management o Liability imposed simply because defendant responsible for situation that caused harm ­ Strict liability torts are rare, limited to extraordinarily dangerous activity o Activity permitted, but liability imposed for any harm ­ Examples: livestock, ownership of wild animals Liability Insurance ­ Unexpected tort liability imposes challenges for risk management ­ Liability insurance can be used to manage tort liability o Contract in which insured pays insurance company to:  Defend claims against insured  Compensate insured for loss if held liable o Does not normally cover all torts of insured ­ Effects of liability insurance on tort law o Enhances compensatory function  Tort victim more likely to receive compensation o Undermines deterrence function  Insured potentially less concerned about wrongdoing Vicarious Liability ­ Being held liable for torts committed by another ­ Common busines
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