MHR 405 Study Guide - Distributive Justice, Social Capital, Goal Setting

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MHR405 - Chapter 5: Foundations of Employee Motivation
Motivation - forces within a person that affects his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of
voluntary behaviour
Intrinsic motivation - internal drive to do something because of such things as interest,
challenge, and personal satisfaction
Extrinsic motivation - motivation that comes from outside the person such as praise, pay,
tangible rewards, or a promotion
Employee Engagement
individual's emotional and cognitive motivation particularly a focused, intense, persistent and
purposive effort toward work related goals
it is described in terms of self efficacy - the belief that you have the ability, role clarity and
resources to get the job done
Employee Drivers and Needs
Drives - also known as primary needs are hardwired characteristics of the brain that correct deficiencies
or maintain an internal equilibrium by producing emotions to energize individuals
are innate and universal and are the "prime movers" of behaviour because they generate
emotions
drives produce human needs (secondary )
Maslow's Needs Hierarchy
motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy whereby people are motivated to fulfill a
higher need as a lower one becomes gratified
developed by Abraham Maslow in the 1940's
five basic categories from lowest to highest - physiological(need for food, air, water and shelter),
safety(need for security and stability), belongingness(need for interaction with and affection
from others), esteem(need for self esteem and social esteem/status), and self
actualization(need for self fulfillment, realization of one's potential)
desire to know and desire for aesthetic beauty - two innate drives that Maslow discovered that
do not fit within the hierarchy
Limitations of Maslow's Work
people do not progress through the hierarchy as the theory predicts
issues about how quickly and for how long people fulfill their needs
Three Perspectives to the study of motivation
Holistic perspective - Maslow's explanation that the various needs should be studied together
Humanistic perspective - His idea that higher-order needs are influenced by personal and social
influences and not just instincts
Positive perspective - the approach advocates building positive qualities and perspectives within
individuals
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What's Wrong with Needs Hierarchy?
people don't fit into a one-size-fits-all needs hierarchy (people have different hierarchies as
some may place social status at the top of their personal hierarchy)
needs can change over time and is unique to each person depending on their priorities
Learned Needs Theory - McClelland
he believed that a person's needs can be strengthened through reinforcement, learning and
social conditions
Need for achievement - people want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals and desire feedback
and recognition for their success; thrive on competition
- money is a weak motivator for high nAch people unless it provides feedback and recognition but vice
versa for low nAch people
Need for affiliation - need in which people seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and
expectations and avoid conflict and confrontation
- people with strong nAff project a favourable image of themselves and work well in coordinating roles
to mediate conflicts
Need for power - a need in which people want to control their environment including people and
material resources to benefit either themselves or others
- frequently rely on persuasive communication and make more suggestions in meetings and publicly
evaluate situations
Four Drive Theory
A motivation theory that is based on innate drives to acquire, bond, learn and defend
- are universal and are independent of each other
- three of the four drives are proactive - regularly try to fulfill them and only the drive to defend is
reactive as it is triggered by threat
Practical Implications of Four-Drive Theory
Two recommendations:
best workplaces for employee motivation and well-being offer conditions that help employees
fulfill all four drives; eg: sufficient rewards and information about organizational events
fulfillment of the four drives must be kept in balance
Expectancy Theory of Motivation
A motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviours that people
believe will lead to desired outcome; we are motivated to achieve the goals with the highest expected
payoff
E-to-P-expectancy - individual's perceived probability that his or her effort will result in a particular level
of performance
P-to-O-expectancy - perceived probability that a specific behaviour or performance level will lead to a
particular outcome
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Outcome valences - a valence is the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels
towards an outcome
Effort(intrinsic valence of behaviour) --> Performance(intrinsic valence of achievement) --> Outcomes
Expectancy Theory in Practice
Increasing E-to-P Expectancies (to increase the belief that employees are capable of performing the job
successfully)
Assuring employees they have competencies
Person-job matching
Provide role clarification and sufficient resources
Behavioural modeling
Increasing P-to-O Expectancies (to increase the belief that good performance will result in certain
outcomes
Measure performance accurately
More rewards for good performance
Explain how rewards are linked to performance
Increasing Outcome Valences (to increase the expected value of outcomes resulting from desired
performance)
Ensure that rewards are valued
Individualize rewards
Minimize countervalent outcomes
Organizational Behaviour Modification and Social Cognitive Theory
A theory that explains employee behaviour in terms of the antecedent conditions and
consequences of that behaviour
A-B-Cs of Mod = Antecedents (what happens before the behaviour)--> Behaviour -->
Consequences(what happens after the behaviour)
OB Mod identifies four types of consequences:
1. Positive reinforcement - occurs when the introduction of a consquence increases or maintains
the frequency or future prob. of a specific behaviour. eg: receiving praise after completing a
project
2. Punishment - occurs when a consequence decreases the frequency or future prob. of behaviour.
eg: being demoted
3. Negative reinforcement - when the removal or avoidance of a consequence increases or
maintains the frequency or future prob. of behaviour. eg: when supervisors apply negative
reinforcement when they stop criticizing employees whose substandard performance has
improved
4. Extinction - occurs when the target behaviour decreases b/c no consequence follows it. eg:
when managers stop congratulating employees for their good work
the most effective reinforcement schedule for learning new tasks is continuous reinforcement -
providing positive reinforcement after every occurrence of the desired behaviour
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