MHR 405 Study Guide - Servant Leadership, Situational Leadership Theory, Stress Management

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6 Dec 2012
Chapter 12 - Leadership in Organizational Settings
Leadership - influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute toward the effectiveness and
success of the organizations of which they are members; consists of two components:
leaders motivate others through persuasion and other influence tactics
leaders are enablers
Five perspectives of leadership
1. Competency
2. Behavioural
3. Contingency
4. Transformational
5. Implicit
Competency Perspective of Leadership
identifies certain personal characteristics that lead to superior performance in a leadership role
self concept
drive - successful leaders have a high need for achievement
leadership motivation
knowledge of the business
cognitive and practical intelligence
emotional intelligence
Authentic leadership - an important characteristic that is associated with effective leaders that refers to
how effective leaders need to be aware of, feel comfortable with, and act consistently with their values,
personality, and self-concept.
Competency Perspective Limitations
assumes that all effective leaders have the same personal characteristics that are equally
important in all situations
alternative combinations of competencies might work just as well
leadership is relational, not just something within the person
competencies refer to leadership potential, not performance
Behavioural Perspective of Leadership
study distilled two clusters of leadership:
directive leadership - includes behaviours that define and structure work roles
supportive leadership - includes behaviours such as listening to employees for their
opinions and ideas
Limitations of Supportive Leadership vs. Directive
two categories are broad generalizations that mask specific behaviours within each category;
these clusters of activities are fairly distinct and likely have different effects on employee well-
being and performance
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assumes that high levels of both styles are best in all situations; in reality, the best leadership
style depends on the situation
Servant leadership - extension of the supportive leadership style b/c it defines leadership as serving
others toward their need fulfillment, personal development, and growth
Contingency Perspective of Leadership
based on the idea that the most appropriate leadership style depends on the situation
path goal theory of leadership - leaders create paths to effective performance for their
states that effective leaders ensure that good performers receive more valued rewards
than do poor performers
Path Goal Leadership Styles
1. Directive
2. Supportive
3. Participative
4. Achievement oriented
Contingencies of Path Goal Theory
specifies two sets of situational variables that moderate the relationship between a leader's
style and effectiveness: (1) employee characteristics and (2) characteristics of the employee's
work environment
Four Contingencies:
1. Skill and experience
directive and supportive leadership is best for employees who are inexperienced and
2. Locus of Control
employees with internal locus of control prefer participative and achievement oriented
leadership styles
employees with external locus of control - supportive and directive leadership
3. Task Structure
leaders should adopt directive style when task is nonroutine
employees in highly routine tasks require supportive leadership
participative leadership is effective with nonroutine tasks
4. Team Dynamics
team cohesion is low - leaders should use the supportive style.
leaders should apply a directive style to counteract team norms that oppose the team's
formal objectives
Other Contingency Theories
Situational Leadership Theory ( Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard) - suggests that effective leaders vary
their style with the ability and motivation (or commitment) of followers
identifies four type of leadership styles - telling, selling, participating and delegating
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