MHR 405 Study Guide - Organizational Commitment, Cognitive Dissonance, Emotional Labor

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Published on 13 Feb 2013
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MHR Chapter 3-4/ LEC Notes
CHAPTER 3
Self-Concept: An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations
Self-enhancement: A person’s inherent motivation to have a positive self-concept (and to have other
perceive him/her favourably), such as being competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, and important
Self-verification: A person’s inherent motivation to confirm and maintain his/her existing self-concept
Self-efficacy: A person’s belief that he or she has the ability, motivation, correct role perceptions, and
favourable situation to complete a task successfully
Locus of control: A person’s general belief about the amount of control he or she has over personal life
events.
Social Identity theory: A theory that explains that people define themselves by the groups to which they
belong or have an emotional attachment
Perception: The process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us
Selective attention: The process
of attending to some information
received by our senses and
ignoring other information
Confirmation Bias: The tendency
to screen out information that is
contrary to our decisions, beliefs,
values, and assumptions, and to
more readily accept confirming
information.
Categorical thinking: Organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our
long-term memory
Mental models: Visual or relational images in our mind that represent the external world
Stereotyping: The process of assigning traits to people on the basis of their membership in a social
category (Occurs because: - Categorical thinking, -Innate drive to understand and anticipate others
behaviour, - enhances our self-concept)
Figure 3.3
Model of the
perceptual
Process
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MHR Chapter 3-4/ LEC Notes
Social Identity and self enhancement reinforce stereotyping through:
1. Categorization: Categorize people into groups
2. Homogenization: Assign Similar traits within a group; Different traits to other groups
3. Differentiation- Assign (usually) less favourable attributes to other groups
Stereotyping Problems: Over-generalizes- doesn’t represent everyone in the category
Basis of systematic and intentional discrimination
Overcoming Stereotype Biases: Difficult to prevent stereotype activation
Possible to minimize stereotype application
Attribution Process: The perceptual process of
deciding whether an observed behaviour or
even is caused largely by internal or external
factors
Internal Attribution: Perception that behaviour
is caused by person’s own motivation or ability
External Attribution: Perception that behaviour
is caused by situation or fate- reasons beyond
person’s control
Fundamental Attribution error: The tendency
to see the person rather than the situation as
the main cause of that person’s behaviour
Self-serving bias: The tendency to
attribute our favourable outcomes to
internal factors and our failures to
external factors
Self-fulfilling prophecy: The perceptual
process in which our expectations about
another person cause that person to act
in a way that is consistent with those
expectations
Positive organizational behaviour: A perspective of organizational behaviour that focuses on building
positive qualities and traits within individuals or institutions as opposed to focusing on what is wrong
with them.
Figure 3.2 Rules of
attribution
Figure 3.5 Self-fulfilling
prophecy cycle
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