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Study Guide

[MHR 405] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 64 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405
Professor
Frank Miller
Study Guide
Final

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Ryerson
MHR 405
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 5 Motivation
Motivation Intrinsic
Motivation Internal drive to do something because of such things as interest, challenge, and
personal satisfaction.
Extrinsic Motivation
Motivation that comes from outside the person such as praise, pay, tangible rewards, or a
promotion.
Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory
Maslow suggested that we are motivated simultaneously by several primary needs
(drives), but the strongest source of motivation is the lowest unsatisfied need at the time.
As the person satisfies a lower- level need, the next higher need in the hierarchy becomes
the primary motivator and remains so even if never satisfied. The exception to this need
fulfilment process is self -actualization; as people experience self- actualization, they
desire more rather than less of this need.
While the bottom four groups are deficiency needs because they become activated when
unfulfilled, self -actualization is known as a growth need because it continues to develop
even when fulfilled.
Three Learned Needs Theory
Need for Achievement
Need for Achievement People with a strong need for achievement (nAch) want to
accomplish reasonably challenging goals through their own effort. They prefer working
alone rather than in teams, and they choose tasks with a moderate degree of risk (i.e.,
neither too easy nor impossible to complete).
High-nAch people also desire unambiguous feedback and recognition for their success.
Money is a weak motivator, except when it provides feedback and recognition.
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In contrast, employees with a low nAch perform their work better when money is used as
an incentive. Successful entrepreneurs tend to have a high nAch, possibly because they
establish challenging goals for themselves and thrive on competition.
Need for Affiliation
Need for Affiliation Need for affiliation (nAff) refers to a desire to seek approval from
others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontation.
People with a strong nAff try to project a favourable image of themselves. They tend to
actively support others and try to smooth out workplace conflicts.
High nAff employees generally work well in coordinating roles to mediate conflicts and
in sales positions where the main task is cultivating long -term relations. However, they
tend to be less effective at allocating scarce resources and making other decisions that
potentially generate conflict.
People in decision-making positions must have a relatively low need for affiliation so
their choices and actions are not biased by a personal need for approval.
Need for Power
Need for Power People with a high need for power (nPow) want to exercise control over
others and are concerned about maintaining their leadership position. They frequently
rely on persuasive communication, make more suggestions in meetings, and tend to
publicly evaluate situations more frequently.
McClelland pointed out that there are two types of nPow.
Individuals who enjoy their power for its own sake, use it to advance personal
interests, and wear their power as a status symbol have personalized power.
Others mainly have a high need for socialized power because they desire power as
a means to help others.
McClelland argues that effective leaders should have a high need for socialized rather
than personalized power. They must have a high degree of altruism and social
responsibility and be concerned about the consequences of their own actions on others.
Four Drive Theory:
Drive to acquire.
This is the drive to seek, take, control, and retain objects and personal experiences. The
drive to acquire extends beyond basic food and water; it includes enhancing one's self
-concept through relative status and recognition in society..
Four- drive theory states that the drive to acquire is insatiable because the purpose of
human motivation is to achieve a higher position than others, not just to fulfill one's
physiological needs.
Drive to bond.
This is the drive to form social relationships and develop mutual caring commitments
with others.
The drive to bond motivates people to cooperate and, consequently, is a fundamental
ingredient in the success of organizations and the development of societies.
Drive to comprehend.
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