[MHR 405] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (27 pages long!)

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Published on 30 Mar 2017
School
Ryerson University
Department
Human Resources
Course
MHR 405
Ryerson
MHR 405
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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MHR405 Lecture 3
Changing Perceptions at Camp FFIT
Camp FFIT is part of the Ottawa Fire Service’s campaign to recruit more female firefighters (by aligning their
self-concept with this work) and change perceptions about women in the profession
Self-Concept: How We Perceive Ourselves
Self-Concept: an individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations
o It is the “who am I?” and “how do I feel about myself?” that people ask themselves and that guide their
decisions and actions
o Perceived Self -> current images of ourselves; Ideal Self -> what we want to be
o Includes the 3 Self-Concept Dimensions, and the 4 “Selves” Processes
Self Concept Complexity, Consistency, and Clarity
Complexity -> the number of distinct and important roles/identities that people perceive about themselves (e.g.
student, friend, daughter, etc.)
Consistency -> similar personality traits, values, and other attributes across multiple “selves” (e.g. you are a
meticulous engineer, but also a risk-oriented skier)
Clarity -> the degree to which you have a clear, confidently defined, and stable self-concept; occurs when we
are confident about who we are
Psychological well-being is higher when people have… complexity (multiple selves), clarity (well established
selves), and consistency (selves are similar to each other and are compatible with personal traits)
Four “Selves” of Self-Concept
Self-Enhancement: a person’s inherent motivation to have a positive self-concept (and to have others perceive
him/her favourably), such as being competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, and important
o Positive Outcomes -> allows the individual to have a better personal adjustment, and mental/physical health;
inflates personal causation and probability of success
o Negative Outcomes -> causes people to overestimate future returns in investment decisions, use less
conservative accounting practices, and take longer to recognize their mistakes
Self-Verification: a person’s inherent motivation to confirm and maintain his/her existing self-concept
o Stabilizes people’s self-view, which guides their thoughts and actions
o People prefer feedback consistent with their self-concept (e.g. you tell someone you’re an organized person,
and they later comment on how you are organized)
o Outcomes:
Employees are more likely to remember info that is consistent with their self-concept, and screen out
info that’s inconsistent (particularly negative info)
The clearer their self-concept, the less people will consciously accept feedback
Employees are motivated to interact with others who affirm their self-views, which can affect how they
get along with others
Self-Evaluation
o Self-Esteem -> the extent to which people like, respect, and are satisfied with themselves
People have higher self-esteem when they are connected to and accepted by others; they are less
influenced by others, tend to persist in spite of failure, and think more rationally
o Self-Efficacy: a person’s belief that he or she has the ability, motivation, correct role perceptions, and
favourable situation to complete a task successfully
In regards to the MARS model, they believe they possess the energy (motivation), ability, clear
expectations (role perceptions), and resources (situational factors) to perform the task
o Locus of Control: a person’s general belief about the amount of control he or she has over personal life
events
Internal locus of control -> believe their personal characteristics (e.g. motivation, abilities, etc.) mainly
influence their life outcomes; these people have a more positive self-evaluation, tend to perform better,
more successful in their careers, etc.
External locus of control -> believe fate, luck, or conditions in the external environment control their life
outcomes
The Social Self
o Social Identity Theory: a theory stating that people define themselves by the groups to which they belong or
have an emotional attachment
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o Personal Identity -> AKA internal self-concept; consists of attributes that make us unique and distinct from
people in the social groups to which we have a connection (e.g. an unusual achievement that distinguishes
you from others becomes a personal identity characteristics
o Social Identity -> AKA external self-concept; (e.g. someone might have a social identity as a Canadian, a
Ryerson University alumni, an employee at Desjardins Group, etc.)
Self-Concept and Organizational Behaviour
Perception -> the process of receiving info about, and making sense of, the world around us
Perceiving the World Around Us
Perception: the process of receiving information about, and making sense of, the world around us
o Involves determining which info gets noticed, how to categorize the info, and how to interpret info within our
existing knowledge framework
o Perceptual Process:
5 senses (feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting) -> selective attention and emotional marker
response -> perceptual organization and interpretation -> attitudes and behaviour
Selective Attention: the process of attending to some information received by our senses and ignoring other
information
o Influenced by characteristics of the person/object being perceived, particularly size, intensity, motion,
repetition, and novelty (e.g. a flashing red light is noticed immediately because it is bright [intensity], flashing
[motion], a rare event [novelty])
o Characteristics of the perceiver also influence selection attention, without their awareness; when info is
received through our senses, our brain quickly and non-consciously assess whether it’s important or not,
and then attaches emotional markers (i.e. worry, happiness, boredom) to the retained info
Confirmation Bias: the process of screening out information that is contrary to our values and assumptions and
to more readily accept confirming information
Perceptual Organization and Interpretation
Categorical Thinking: organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our long-
term memory
o Forms of grouping:
Grouped based on similarity/proximity (e.g. if you notice a group of similar-looking people includes
several professors, you will likely assume the others in that group are also professors)
Grouping based on cognitive closure (e.g. filling in missing information about what happened at a
meeting that you didn’t attend – who was there, where it was held, etc.)
Occurs when we think we see trends in otherwise ambiguous information (e.g. presumed winning
streaks among sports stars or in gambling)
o Interpreting incoming information -> emotional markers automatically evaluate information
Mental Models: knowledge structures that we develop to describe, explain, and predict the world around us (or,
internal representations of the external world); consists of visual or relational images in our mind (e.g. what the
classroom looks like or what happens when we submit an assignment late)
o Helps make sense of situations by filling in missing pieces, and helps to predict events
o Problems -> may block recognition of new opportunities/perspectives
Specific Perceptual Processes and Problems
Stereotyping in Organizations
Stereotyping: the process of assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category
o Stereotypes -> shared beliefs across an entire society/cultures
Why People Stereotype
o It simplifies our understanding of the world; it’s easier to remember stereotypes than to remember all the
characteristics unique to everyone we meet
o We have an innate need to understand and anticipate how others will behave
o It is motivated by the observer’s own self-enhancement and social identity
Categorization -> social identity is a comparative process, and the comparison begins by categorizing
people into distinct groups
Homogenization -> to simplify the comparison process, we tend to think that people within each group
are vey similar to each other
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Document Summary

Camp ffit is part of the ottawa fire service"s campaign to recruit more female firefighters (by aligning their self-concept with this work) and change perceptions about women in the profession. Includes the 3 self-concept dimensions, and the 4 selves processes. Complexity -> the number of distinct and important roles/identities that people perceive about themselves (e. g. student, friend, daughter, etc. ) Consistency -> similar personality traits, values, and other attributes across multiple selves (e. g. you are a meticulous engineer, but also a risk-oriented skier) Clarity -> the degree to which you have a clear, confidently defined, and stable self-concept; occurs when we are confident about who we are. Psychological well-being is higher when people have complexity (multiple selves), clarity (well established selves), and consistency (selves are similar to each other and are compatible with personal traits) Employees are more likely to remember info that is consistent with their self-concept, and screen out info that"s inconsistent (particularly negative info)