MHR 405 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Group Conflict, Daniel Kahneman, Absenteeism

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23 Nov 2017
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MHR Midterm review
Chapter 3
Self-Concept
Defined: An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations
Model includes:
Three self-concept dimensions
1. Complexity
People have multiple self-concepts
2. Consistency
Similar personality and values across multiple selves
3. Clarity
Clearly and confidently described, internally consistent, and stable across time.
Psychological well-being higher when people have:
multiple selves (complexity)
well established selves (clarity)
selves similar to each other and compatible with personal traits (consistency)
Four “selves” processes
1. Self-enhancement
o Promoting and protecting our positive self-view
Competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, valued
o Positive self-concept outcomes:
Better personal adjustment and mental/physical health
Inflates personal causation and probability of success
2. Self-verification
o Affirming our existing self-concept
o People prefer feedback consistent with their self-concept
o Self-verification outcomes:
More likely to perceive information consistent with our self-concept
We interact more with those who affirm/reflect our current self-concept
3. Self-evaluation
o Self-esteem
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High self-esteem -- less influenced, more persistent/logical
o Self-efficacy
Belief in one’s ability, motivation, role perceptions, and situation to complete a
task successfully
General vs. task-specific self-efficacy
o Locus of control guarantee
General belief about personal control over life events
Higher self-evaluation with internal locus of control
4. Social self
o Defining ourselves in terms of group membership
Perception
Defined: The process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us
Determining which information gets noticed
How to categorize this information
How to interpret information within our existing knowledge framework
Selective attention
Defined: The process of attending to some information received by our senses and ignoring other
information.
Influenced by: characteristics, size, intensity, motion, repetition, novelty, and context.
Perceptual organization/interpretation
Categorical thinking
Mostly non-conscious process of organizing people/things
Perceptual grouping principles
Similarity or proximity
Closure -- filling in missing pieces
Perceiving trends
Interpreting incoming information
Emotional markers automatically evaluate information
Mental models in perceptions
Internal representations of the external world
Help make sense of situations
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Fill in missing pieces
Help to predict events
Problem with mental models:
May block recognition of new opportunities/perspectives
Stereotyping
Define: Assigning traits to people based on social category membership
Occurs because:
Categorical thinking
Innate drive to understand and anticipate others’ behavior
Enhances our self-concept
Solutions:
Stereotyping Problems
Overgeneralizes doesn’t represent everyone in the category
Basis of systemic and intentional discrimination
Overcoming stereotype biases
Difficult to prevent stereotype activation
Possible to minimize stereotype application
Attribution Process
Attribution error
Fundamental Attribution Error
attributing own actions to internal and external factors and others’ actions to
internal factors
Self-Serving Bias
attributing our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors
Internal
Attribution
External
Attribution
Perception that behaviour is
caused by person’s own
motivation or ability
Perception that behaviour is
caused by situation or fate --
beyond person’s control
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