MHR 405 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Fundamental Attribution Error, Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction

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CHAPTER 1 – organizational behaviour
Organizations are groups of people who work interdependently towards some
purpose
Organizational behavior is a field of study that seeks understand, explain,
predict, and change human behavior, both individual and collective, in the
organizational context.
People study organizational behavior to understand, influence, and predict
organizational events.
Organizational behavior anchors include multidisciplinary, systematic,
contingency, multiple levels of analysis, and open systems anchor.
Formal organization - includes its official, legitimate, and most visible
parts, such as its technology and structure.
Informal organization- includes the unofficial and less visible elements
such as beliefs, assumptions, values, and unspoken norms of behaviour.
GHOST stands for goals, human resources, organizational structure, and
technology. Exhibit 1.4 outlines the overall framework of organizational
functioning including the GHOST model. The two-way arrows connecting the
boxes within the internal organization are there to remind you that “various
parts both affect and are affected by each other
Behavioural science is research that improves one’s ability to understand,
predict, and influence the behavior of others.
CHAPTER 2 – creating a positive work environment
Individual factors
Primary diversity factors – age, gender, physical attributes,
race/ethnicity/culture.
Secondary diversity factors – career stage, marital status, educational
background, religious belief, work experience
Individual values
Instrumental: behaviours used to achieve end state (honesty,
politeness, courage)
Terminal: goals representing end state (happiness, salvation, self
respect, prosperity)
Job satisfaction and organizational commitment increase employee
engagement.
Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the
appraisal of ones job or job experience , and is influenced by culture.
Top 5 reasons for staying in the job are :
The work itself – 78%
The co workers – 68%
The mission and activities of the company – 61%
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On the job learning – 57%
Salary satisfaction – 53%
Organizational commitment is the strength of an individuals identification
with an organization
Affective commitement – desire to remain
Continuance commitment – cannot afford to leave
Normative commitment – perceived obligation to remain
Employment engagement is the state of emotional and intellectual
involvement that employees have in their organization
Qualities required for ethical decision making include
Competence to identify ethical issues and evaluate the consequences
of alternative courses of action
Self confidence to seek out different opinions about the issue and
decide what is right in terms of a situation
Tough mindedness – willingness to make decisions when all that need
to be known cannot be known and when the ethical issue had no
established, unambiguous solution.
CHAPTER 3 – Perception and Personality
Perception – the process through which we select, organize, and interpret
information gathered by our senses in order to understand the world around
us.
Perception is an automatic, unconscious process.
Perceptual process model – environmental – feeling, hearing, seeing,
smelling, tasting- selective attention- organization and interpretation-
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emotions and behaviours
Barriers to social perception include
Selective attention
Stereotyping – a generalization about a group of people
Self-fulfilling prophecies – the situation in which our expectations about
people affect our interaction with them in such a way that our
expectations are fulfilled.
First impression error (primacy effect) – the tendency to form lasting
opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions.
Attribution process about human behavior and outcome
Attribution process
Internal and external attribution
Common errors – fundamental attribution error, and self-serving bias.
To improve perceptual accuracy one can postpone judgment, reduce
uncertainty, check perception, empathy, increase self-awareness.
Personality is a relative stable set of characteristics that influences an
individuals behavior
Big 5 Personality Characteristics – instrument most frequently used in
assessing personality for recruitment and selection.
Openness
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
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