MHR 405 Study Guide - Final Guide: List Of Fables Characters, Contact Hypothesis, Communication Problems

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Published on 18 Feb 2015
School
Ryerson University
Department
Human Resources
Course
MHR 405
MHR 405 Exam Review
Chapter 5: Foundations of Employee Motivation
McClelland’s Need Theory
Needs learned through socialization:
Need for Power
Need for Achievement
Need for Affiliation
Managers should meet needs of employees by….
1. Promoting a healthier workforce
2. Provide financial security
3. Provide opportunities to socialize
4. Recognize employee’s accomplishments
Six Ways to Restore Inequity
1. Change your inputs
2. Change your outcomes
3. Distort own inputs/outcomes
4. Distort comparison other’s inputs/outcomes
5. Change the comparison others
6. Leave the situation
Practical implications of equity theory
1. Avoid underpayment
2. Avoid overpayment
3. Make relevant inputs very clear
4. Make outcomes very clear
5. Have fair procedures
6. Deliver negative outcomes sensitively
Expectancy Theory
- Expectancy: The belief that effort will improve performance
- Instrumentality: The perceived likelihood of being rewarded for performance
- Valence: The value placed on a specific reward
Practical implications of expectancy theory
- Increase expectancies: Help make the desired performance attainable
- Administer highly valued reward
- Link performance and rewards clearly
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Goal Setting Theory
Goals affect behavior in four ways:
1. Direct attention to a particular task
2. Mobilize on-task effort
3. Enable us to persist
4. Facilitate strategies that can be used at a higher cognitive level to move toward goal
attainment
Goal Difficulty - the more difficult/challenging a goal is, the more motivating the goal (effort)
Goal Specificity - the more specific a goal, the more motivating the goal (direction)
Goal Acceptance/Commitment - individuals more likely to achieve goal to which they are
committed (persistence)
Feedback - enables individuals to assess progress toward goals (new strategies)
Practical implications of goal setting theory
Assign specific goals
Assign difficult but acceptable performance goals
Involve employees in goal-setting
Provide feedback concerning goal attainment (Accurate, Specific, Credible, Timely)
Chapter Ten: Power and Influence in the Workplace
What is power?
A -> B -> Behaviour
Capacity of person A to influence person B to engage in behaviour they would not do
We can have it, but don’t always have to use it
Genuinely want to or have to will depend on person A
Person A is dependent to get something done from B, and person B is reliable on A
Power
Effect – as power increases, so does an individual’s potential to influence others
The dark side of power – tendency to view power in a negative light
Power blinds us to the dark side
Definite dark side
Don’t like the people with power in organizations
Doesn’t mean it always exists
Position Power: legitimate
Authority is associated with a position or role
Power that we have because someone has given it
Must hold a specific role
ex. Stephen Harper
Position Power: Reward
Someone’s ability to give or withhold reward
Ex. Schedule makers
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Position Power: Coercive
Someone who has legitimate power who can discipline
Doesn’t have to be formal manager or supervisor
Engage in something they don’t want to do
Personal Power: Expert
Result of expertise/superior knowledge that people want
Does not rely on any specific position
Knowledge, literally being an expert in something
Everyone is going to rely on you to
Increase your knowledge
Extra training, more courses, attend professional meetings
Personal Power: Referent
Having power because of personal attraction, others admire & identify with you (charisma)
People want to be around you
Working on communication style
Ex. Oprah
Work on close relationships
Confidence with peers and management
Consequences of Power
Employee resistance - coercion
Expert & Referent - most commitment
Reward & Legitimate - compliance
Position is formal
Personal is informal
Power and Social Networks
Creates interdependence through connections to others
Creating social network with a deeper meaning
Influence how much power we are going to have
Three Types of Social Power:
Knowledge
Visible
Generating charisma
Social Network Ties:
Smaller network : stronger ties
Larger network : weaker ties
Weaker ties are better for job searching
Stronger ties are better for someone to call up for favour
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Document Summary

Needs learned through socialization: need for power, need for achievement, need for affiliation. Managers should meet needs of employees by : promoting a healthier workforce, provide financial security, provide opportunities to socialize, recognize employee"s accomplishments. Six ways to restore inequity: change your inputs, change your outcomes, distort own inputs/outcomes, distort comparison other"s inputs/outcomes, change the comparison others, leave the situation. Practical implications of equity theory: avoid underpayment, avoid overpayment, make relevant inputs very clear, make outcomes very clear, have fair procedures, deliver negative outcomes sensitively. Expectancy: the belief that effort will improve performance. Instrumentality: the perceived likelihood of being rewarded for performance. Valence: the value placed on a specific reward. Increase expectancies: help make the desired performance attainable. Goals affect behavior in four ways: direct attention to a particular task, mobilize on-task effort, enable us to persist, facilitate strategies that can be used at a higher cognitive level to move toward goal attainment.