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MHR 523 Study Guide - Final Guide: Instructional Design, Diversity Training, Influenza Pandemic

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 523
Margaret Yap
Study Guide

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Chapter 8: Employee Orientation
Employees Orientation: procedure for providing
new employees with basic background information
about: the organization and the job.
Socialization: ongoing process of instilling in all
employees the prevailing attitudes, standards,
values, and patterns of behavior that are expected
by the organization.
Reality Shock: difference between what new
employees expects from his/her job and realities of it
Purpose of Orientation Programs:
improved job performance
reduced first day jitters and reality shock
foundation for ongoing performance
improved productivity
improved retention levels and reduced
recruitment costs
Special Orientation Situations:
diverse workforce
mergers and acquisitions
union versus non-union employees
multi-location organizations
Problems with Orientation Programs:
too much info in little time=overwhelmed
too many forms to fill out
little or no orientation provided
HR information too broad; supervisory
information too detailed
The Training Process:
Step 1: Training Needs Analysis:
determine what training is required, if any
for new employees, determine what the job
entails and break it down into subtasks, each of
which is taught to the new employee
for current employees, determine whether or not
training is the solution
Task Analysis (training needs of new employees)
Task list:
when and how often performed
quantity and quality of performance
conditions under which performed
competencies and specific knowledge required
Performance Analysis (training needs of current
Verify weakness and strengthen them
Step 2: Instructional Design
How to train employees
Examples: Traditional Training Techniques
on-the-job training
apprenticeship training
classroom training
programmed learning
simulated training
Step 3: Validation
validate training using representative audience
make revisions based on pilot results
Step 4: Implementation
once the program has been validated, it is ready
to be implemented by professional trainers
train-the-trainer; workshops may be required
focus on presentation as well as content
Step 5: Evaluation of Training
Reactions - Did they like it?
Learning - Did they learn it?
Behavior - Did they use it on the job?
Results - Did this change measurable
organizational outcomes?
Training for Special Purposes
Literacy and essential skills training
Diversity training
Customer service training
Training for teamwork
Training for first-time supervisors
Training for global business
Chapter 9: Career Development
Career Planning and Development: process
through which an employee becomes aware of
personal career-related attributes and the lifelong
series of activities that contribute to his or her career
Roles in Career Development
individual must accept responsibility for his or
her own career
but the individual, the manager and the employer
all have roles in the individual's career
Individual’s Role in Career Development
accept responsibility for own career
o self-motivation
o independent learning
o effective time and money management
o self-promotion
networking is the foundation of effective career
Manager’s Role In Career Development
provide timely and objective performance
offer developmental assignments and support
participate in career development discussions
act as coach, appraiser, advisor, and referral
Employer’s Role In Career Development
provide training and development opportunities

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

offer career information and career programs
offer a variety of career options
provide career planning workshops
provide opportunities for mentoring
Factors That Affect Career Choices
Identify Career Stage
o growth stage (birth to age 14)
o exploration stage (age 15 to 24)
o establishment stage (age 24 to 44)
o maintenance stage (age 45 to 65)
o decline stage (retirement age)
Identify Occupational Orientation
o realistic
o investigative
o social
o conventional
o enterprising
o artistic
Identify a Career Anchor a concern or value you
will not give up if a choice must be made:
o technical/functional
o managerial competence
o creativity
o autonomy and independence
o security
o service/dedication
o pure challenge
o lifestyle
Responsibilities of the Organization
o provide realistic job previews
o avoid reality shock
o provide challenging initial jobs
o be demanding
o provide period developmental job
o provide career oriented performance
o provide career planning workshops
o provide opportunities for mentoring
o become a learning organization
Managing Transfers
o greater possibility of advancement
o personal enrichment
o more interesting job
o greater convenience
o two-thirds of transfers refused due to
family/spousal concerns
Making Promotion Decisions
o Is Seniority or Competence the Rule?
o How Is Competence Measured?
o Is the Process Formal or Informal?
o Vertical, Horizontal, or Other Career Path?
Management Development
o attempt to improve current or future
management performance by imparting
knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing
o ultimate aim of management-development
programs is to achieve business strategy
o the management-development process
consists of:
1. Assessing HR needs
2. Creating a talent pool
3. Developing managers
o Techniques include: off the job and on the
Succession Planning
o a process through which senior-level and critical
strategic job openings are planned for and
eventually filled
o successful succession planning begins with CEO
leadership and involvement in the following
o establishing a strategic direction for the
o identifying core skills and competencies
needed in jobs that are critical to achieve
the strategy
o identifying people inside the organization
who have, or can acquire, those skills
and providing them with developmental
Executive Development
o Canada facing a shortage of leadership talent
o three basic requirements for successful
leadership are knowledge, competency,
o six categories of leadership competencies:
o self-mastery
o vision
o sense-making/thinking
o design of intelligent action
o aligning people to action/leading
o adaptive learning
Chapter 10: Performance Management
Performance Management: process of improving
employee performance, productivity, and
effectiveness. Includes goal setting, pay for
performance, training and development, career
management, and disciplinary action.
Performance Management Process:
1. defining performance expectations
2. providing ongoing feedback and coaching
3. conducting performance appraisal and
evaluation discussions
4. determining performance rewards/consequences
such as promotions, salary, increases and
5. conducting development and career
opportunities discussions

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Step 1: Defining Performance Expectations
o job description often insufficient to clarify
performance expectations
o measurable standards related to strategic
objectives should be developed for each position
Step 2: Providing Ongoing Coaching and
o important to have open two-way communication
o both the employee and the manager need to
check in frequently throughout the performance
management process to talk about progression
toward goals
Step 3: Performance Appraisal and Evaluation
o the appraisal itself is generally conducted with
the aid of a predetermined and formal method
such as:
(Narrative Forms as well)
Graphic Rating Scale:
o a scale that lists a number of traits and a range
of performance for each
o the employee is then rated by identifying the
score that best describes his or her level of
performance for each trait
Alternation Ranking Method:
o ranking employees from best to worst on a
particular trait
Forced Distribution Method:
o predetermined percentages of rate’s are placed
in various performance categories
o for example, it may be decided to distribute
employees as follows:
o 15 percent high performers
o 20 percent high-average performers
o 30 percent average performers
o 20 percent low-average performers
o 15 percent low performers
Critical Incident Method:
o keeping a record of uncommonly good or
undesirable examples of an employee’s work-
related behaviour and reviewing the list with the
employee at predetermined times
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales:
o generate critical incidents
job experts specify effective and ineffective
o develop performance dimensions
cluster the incidents into a smaller set of
performance dimensions
o reallocate incidents
different experts group incidents into same
clusters and retain incidents similarly assigned
o scale the incidents
rate the behaviour described in the incident as
to how effectively or ineffectively it represents
o develop the final instrument
a subset of the incidents is used as behavioural
anchors for each dimension
Management by Objectives (MBO):
o set the organization’s goals
o set departmental goals
o discuss departmental goals
o define expected results (individual)
o performance reviews: measure the results
o provide feedback
o setting unclear, immeasurable objectives
o time consuming
o tug of war between manager and employee
Computerized and Web-Based Performance
o enables managers to keep computerized notes
on employees, combine these with ratings on
several performance traits, and then generate
written text to support each part of the appraisal
o most web-based performance management
systems allow managers to track the status of
performance management plan easily
o electronic performance monitoring (EPM) refers
to having supervisors electronically monitor the
amount of computerized data an employee is
processing per day and thereby his or her
Performance Appraisal Problems
o validity and reliability
o rating scale problems
unclear performance standards
halo effect
central tendency
leniency or strictness
appraisal bias
recency effect
similar-to-me bias
Who Should Do the Appraising?
o supervisors
o peers
o committees
o self
o subordinates
o all of the above
Appraisal Interviews
o an interview in which the supervisor and
employee review the appraisal and make plans
to remedy deficiencies and reinforce strengths
o three basic types of appraisal interviews include:
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