MHR 650 Study Guide - Final Guide: Charismatic Authority, Karl E. Weick, Organizational Culture

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22 Apr 2014
Ch: 9,10.( Communicate) Vision: Having a vision is often linked to why successful organizational change is achieved- Conversely, lack of vision is frequently
associated with organizational decline- The role of vision in producing organizational change is linked to the image one has of managing change -Vision is
commonly thought of as a guide for the organization in identifying the appropriateness of particular changes that are proposed.
Content of Meaningful Vision: The content of meaningful vision has sparked considerable debate. Some consideration has been given to attributes, its style, and
how it is differentiated from mission and organizational values. Here are some examples:
Attributes of vision: cognitive component : focusing on achieving outcomes - affective component : helping to motivate people and increase commitment
to the change. - Four generic characteristics of vision are:Possibility- Desirability – Actionability – Articulation. Three components of vision are: Why the
change is needed- The aim of the change - The change actions that will be taken. Vision as stories: This allows a vivid description of the change to which
people can relate. Stories are more effective than simple vision statements because people can imagine themselves and their actions in the future.
Relationship to mission and goals: Vision is often confused with other terms such as mission statements, goals and values – Whereas vision usually paints a
picture of the future and is inspirational, mission statements are more purposive and instrumental in outlining what needs to be done. Relationship of
Vision to Market Strategy: It has been argued that having a well-specified market vision such as this helps to identify how the company will grow and
compete. How Context affects Vision There are four organizational contexts in terms of their ability to produce visionary change that should be considered. These
are:Rigid organizations - Bold organizations - Over-managed organizations -Liberated organizations -A vision will “take” in an organization depending
on whether there is a contextual “trigger” that alerts people to the need for a new vision. The national and cultural context in which the organization is
embedded is also important. Processes by which vision emerges : There are a number of approaches to creating vision which include: Crafting the vision:
this can be either leader-dominated, pump-priming or facilitated - Questions that help to develop a vision: this can be done through an intuitive, analytic or
benchmarking approach - Connecting the vision to the organization’s inner voice: this connects the vision to the underlying values and beliefs that are held
within the organization. Failure of Vision: Visions can fail for a number of reasons including being: too specific - too vague – inadequate - too unrealistic. –
A vision must be able to adapt over time A dominant vision will be one that outlasts others that may be present within the organization. Debates linking
Vision and Change: There are three key debates that link vision and change. Does vision drive change or emerge during change?- Does vision help or
hinder change? -Is vision an attribute of heroic leaders or of heroic organizations? Heroic Leaders or Organizations : Is Vision an Attribute of Heroic Leaders or of
Heroic Organizations?- Vision Is an Attribute of Heroic Leaders: Some writers claim that successful strategic organizational change will only occur when it
is led effectively. Charismatic leaders secure images in their followers and enact their visions through four processes: Framing -Scripting -Staging-
Performing – Mission Is an Attribute of Heroic Organizations: It is a visionary company that will last the distance, irrespective of its leadership. Vision
consists of a core ideology which defines what the organization stands for – it becomes the core purpose and envisioned future of the organization.
Communication Process: The way change is communicated is important to the success of the change program- The communication process, or mix, includes
elements such as content, voice, tone, message, audience, medium, frequency and consistency. – There are many problems can disturb the process of
communication: - message overload - message distortion and -message ambiguity. Language, Power, Gender & Communication Language, power, gender and
emotion can also impact the communication of change. -Language reflects and reinforces underlying social and power relationships. -Gender differences,
for example, also affect this process. Three examples of the difference are: -Getting credit -Confidence and boasting -Asking questions -Other gender
differences relate to how feedback is given and received, how compliments are exchanged, and whether the communication is direct or indirect. Emotion &
Communication Emotion is linked to change, and can also contribute to the breakdown of the communication process. - Individuals can perceive that
organizational change can harm them personally, thus their emotional state and sense of identity are threatened by change situations. Managers can use
three techniques to avoid these situations:- Perspective taking - Threat-reducing behavior – Reflection - Communication Strategies: Can you communicate too
much: depending on the change and the image of the change manager the level and extent of communication can vary. - Getting word out or buy in: - this
differentiates between focusing the communication process on the provision of information or gaining participation in the process. - Beyond Spray and
Pray: - This communication continuum includes five approaches Spray and pray- Tell and sell -Underscore and explore -Identify and reply - Withhold and
uphold. Communication Strategies: Contingency approaches to communicating strategy vary depending: on the type of change e.g. Developmental or incremental
– Task-focused -Charismatic – Turnaround – on the stage of change e.g. -Planning -Enabling - Launching -Catalyzing -Maintaining. Communication Media:
Richness Varies in “richness” depending on how personal is its ability to communicate change -There is a hierarchy of media richness than can be more
applicable for particular situations. -For example, an email or memo is less personal (and less “rich”) than a face to face meeting – Different types of
media may also be more appropriate for different audiences with differing needs. Communication Media: Responsibility CEO: Many believe that the CEO should be
the principle communicator of change while others find lower level managers more trusted by staff and therefore in a better position to communicate
change. Tag Teams: Many organizations now use tag teams – a transition management team. The role of this team is specifically to stimulate open
conversations through organizational units and dispersing information.
Ch7&8: Organization Development It has been the fundamental basis of the field for a number of years - Change is planned, incremental and
participative - Outcomes are focused on the improved effectiveness of the organization - Long-term focus to achieve its action-orientated goals - Focus on
changing the attitudes and behaviours of employees - Top-down focus
Appreciative Inquiry: Participation by large-scale intervention - Shows a shift from problem solving to joint envisioning of the future - Involves a four-
step technique: - Discovering current best practices - Building on existing knowledge - Designing changes - Sustaining the organization’s future
Positive Organizational Scholarship: Emerged in the early 2000s - It encompasses approaches such as Appreciative Inquiry and others including -
positive psychology and community psychology. - Centers on the positive aspects of organizational life. -It can be considered a coaching method to
assist organizations. Sense-Making Approach : -Made famous by Karl Weick -It challenges three key assumptions of change: - Inertia: assumes that
organizations reach a point in which there is a gap between environmental change and organizational adaptation - The need for a standardized change
program -Unfreezing: as organizations are in a constant state of flux, they require freezing to analyze change – not unfreezing to begin the process of
change. Images of Managing Change: Change Management Approach: Focuses on strategic, intentional and usually large- scale change - Entails
following a variety of steps; the exact steps vary depending upon the model used - Belief that achieving organizational change is possible through a
coordinated and planned approach. Kotter’s Eight-Step Model Kotters eight-step model is one of the best known: - Establish the need for urgency
-Ensure there is a powerful change group to guide the change- Develop a vision -Communicate the vision - Empower the staff - Ensure there are short-term
wins - Consolidate gains - Embed the change in the culture
Change Management vs. OD: 1- boarder scope than OD( Emotions, tech). 2- OD third party or couch. CM: teams. 3- OD change attitude, CM changes it
through structural changes. - Critics of change management depict it as being “faddish” and the product of management consultancy firms. - There is a
debate between proponents of OD and proponents of change management: - OD is criticized for being less relevant to modern organizations - Change
management is criticized for having a focus on the concerns of management rather than on those of the organization as a whole
Contingency Approaches: Contingency approaches challenge the view that there is “one best way”- The style of change will vary, depending upon the
scale of the change and the receptivity to change of organizational members.- the style of change varies from collaborative to coercive
Contingency approaches remain less common than change management approaches. Suggested reasons include: - Achieving “fit” may be difficult due to
differing perceptions of the conditions in which the fit is sought - Contingency approaches require greater analysis and decisions by managers; the
prescriptiveness of change management models may be attractive to managers - Contingency approaches focus on leadership style rather than a specific set
of actions -The use of different change styles at different times may raises questions in the minds of staff as to the credibility of senior management.
Processual Approach: Draws on a navigator approach - Change is a continuous process which unfolds differently depending upon the time and the context-
It sees the outcome of change as occurring through a complex interplay of different interest groups, goals, and politics. - This approach alerts the change
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