MHR 650 Study Guide - Organization Development, Normal Science, External Validity

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Published on 26 Sep 2012
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Ch 7: Implementing Change
Coach Image of Implementing Change
The Organization Development (OD)
Characteristics
- It is planned and involved a systematic diagnosis of the whole organizational system, a plan for its improvement, and provision of adequate
resources
- The top of the organization is committed to the change process
- It aims at improving the effectiveness of the organization in order to help it achieve its mission
- It is long term, typically taking two or three years to achieve effective change
- Is it action oriented
- Changing attitudes behaviour is a focus of the change effort
- Experiential based training is important as it helps to identify current behaviours and modifications that are needed
- Groups and teams form the key focus for change
Three value sets are emphasized in OD field
Humanistic values openness, honesty, and integrity
Democratic values social justice, freedom of choice, and involvement
Developmental values authenticity, growth, and self realization
The OD Practitioner: consultant that helps to structure activities to help the organization members to solve their own problems and learn to do that
better
1. Problem identification someone in the organization becomes aware of what they think is a problem that needs to be addressed
2. Consultation with the OD practitioner the client and the practitioner come together with the latter endeavoring to create a collaborative
dialogue
3. Data gathering and problem diagnosis interviews, observations, surveys and analysis of performance data occur to assist in problem
diagnosis. Each of these techniques is recognized as an intervention in itself in the sense that it involves an interaction with people
4. Feedback the consultant provides the client with relevant data, at the same time protecting the identity of people from whom information was
obtained.
5. Joint problem diagnosis as part of the action research process, people are involved in consideration of information and discuss what it means
in terms of required changes
6. Joint action planning the specific actions that need to be taken are identified
7. Change actions the introduction of and transition to new technique and behaviors occur
8. Further data gathering outcomes of change are determined and further actions identified
OD Practitioners need variety of skills (Cummings and Worley)
- Intrapersonal skills: having a well-developed set of values and personal integrity including the ability to retain their own health in high stress
organizational situations
- Interpersonal skills: which are needed in order to work with groups and gain their trust in order to “provide them with counseling and coaching
necessary to develop and change”
- General consultation skills: including knowledge about intervention techniques to assist them in diagnosing problems and designing change
interventions
- Organization development theory: to ensure they have a current understanding of the specialist field of which they are a part
Criticism of OD
- OD definitions and concepts - OD may consist of single or multiple interventions over different periods of time, so establishing the relationship
between “OD” and its ability to enhance
- Internal validity problems this relates to whether the change that occurred was caused by the change intervention or a range of other factors
- External validity problems this relates to whether the change that occurred was caused by the change intervention or range of other factors
- Lack of theory there is no comprehensive theory of change to assist researchers in knowing what to look for in what they study
- Problems with measuring attitude changes using prechange and then postchange surveys to measue attitudinal changes are problematic as
people may view the scale differently when they answer it a second time
- Problems with normal science approaches to research the ability to use these techniques (hypothesis testing, assessing cause effect
relationships etc.) is questioned in relation to OD being a process based on action research
Lewin’s Change Process
- Unfreezing: establishing the need for change
o Identification of problems
o Consultation with OD practitioner
o Gathering of data and initial diagnosis
- Movement: to new behaviour through cognitive restructuring
o Client group feedback
o Joint problem diagnosis
o Joint planning of change actions
o Engagement in change actions
- Refreezing: integration of new behaviours into social and organizational relationship
o Post action data gathering and evaluation
Appreciative Inquiry
Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle
Discovering: what gives life (the best of what it is), Appreciating
Dream: What might be (what the world is calling for)
Design: What should be the ideal? Constructing
Destiny: How to empower, learn, and adjust/improvise? Sustaining
The Emergence of Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS)
- An umbrella term that categorizes previous research and provides and organizing frame for current and future research on positive states,
outcomes and generative mechanisms in individuals, dyads, groups, organizations and societies
Interpreter Image of Implementing Change: Sense Making Approaches
- Assumption of inertia planned, intended change is necessary in order to disrupt the forces that contribute to a lack of change in an
organization so that there is a lag between environmental change and organizational adaption
- Assumption that standardized change program is needed
- Assumption of unfreezing
Eight Features of Sense Making Framework
1. Sense making and identity construction: different ways in which people make sense of the same organizational change events and how it is
related to their understanding of the way their identities are constructed within organizations. (implication-the “top down initiatives requiring
dramatic changes of self (i.e., from humanist to efficiency focused) are highly problematic and need either to be avoided or handled with great
skill)
2. Social sense making: the need that people have to make sense of their situations not just as individuals but as social individuals is connected to a
variety of influences on them such as supervisors, management, trade unions, and so forth (implication-an understanding of social sense making
highlights the need for managers to identify the social factors that influence sense making in their organizational contexts)
3. Extracted cues of sense making: the need for managers of change to be aware of the way people draw on a variety of cues or ideas and actions,
perhaps taken from the external environment, in order to make sense of various decisions (implication: change managers need to identify
appropriate cues and math them to intended change programs. The way in which these cues are interpreted, however may inadvertently create
problems for staff in accepting the legitimacy of the change program and its intended purposes)
4. Ongoing sense making: sense making changes over time as new cues are experienced and events addressed (implication: change managers need
to understand “that on going sense making stabilized a situation and how change acts as a shock, generating emotional response and new acts
sensemaking.”)
5. Retrospection: reference to Karl Weick’s argument that people make sense of their actions retrospectively. (implication-change managers need
to understand that different groups will apply their own retrospective sense making in order to understand emerging organizational events
6. Plausibility: the way that change management programs need to be sold so that the store about the change is plausible rather than necessarily
accurate. (implication-change managers need to understand the way the context and power relations impact on their ability to provide
plausible stories that gain widespread acceptance of the need for change)
7. Enactment: Whereas the above aspects of sense making acts as influences on sense making, “enactment is about imposing that sense on action.”
(implication-enactment alerts change managers to the need to connect sense making to actions)
8. Projective sense: the ability of a powerful actor to project sense making onto a situation, shaping the interpretations of others (implication-the
implication of this is that using legitimate power to impose sense making on parts f the organization may be an important aspect of
understanding the implementation of change)

Document Summary

It is planned and involved a systematic diagnosis of the whole organizational system, a plan for its improvement, and provision of adequate resources. The top of the organization is committed to the change process. It aims at improving the effectiveness of the organization in order to help it achieve its mission. It is long term, typically taking two or three years to achieve effective change. Changing attitudes behaviour is a focus of the change effort. Experiential based training is important as it helps to identify current behaviours and modifications that are needed. Groups and teams form the key focus for change. Three value sets are emphasized in od field. Democratic values social justice, freedom of choice, and involvement. Developmental values authenticity, growth, and self realization. Each of these techniques is recognized as an intervention in itself in the sense that it involves an interaction with people.