Marketing brain: left brain, logical, sequential, rational, analytical, objective, looks at parts, right brain, random, intuitive, holistic, synthesizing, subjective, looks at wholes. 31: low sales volume - not high enough to cover investment and xed costs, selling costs too high, channel margins, development cost too high. Roic: return on investment capital: roic tells us how much value the company creates, roic= net operating pro ts after taxes. Factors affecting supplier power: unique inputs, relative number of suppliers vs. buyers, microsoft software to computer manufacturers, labour unions, switching costs, software training costs, no substitutes, drugs, pilots, buyer group, price sensitivity, mortgages, information, mortgages. Factors affecting buyer power: indirect buyers, concentration, knowledge, switching costs, seller"s product unique. Factors affecting threat of substitutes: the unanticipated competitor, examples: video conferencing for travel, plastic aluminum. Aluminum for steel: technology, digital cameras, factors that determine substitute threat, cost vs. bene t, long distance vs. skype and vonage, buyer switching costs are low, patented to generic drugs.