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Ryerson University
MKT 300
Armand Gervais

PRACTICE QUESTIONS: SKEWNESS AND KURTOSIS Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Skewness Kurtosis Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic Std. Error How many total dollars do 400 $5.00 $450.00 $150.0525 $92.70629 .564 .122 .223 .243 you spend per month in restaurants (for your meals only)? How likely would it be for 400 1 5 3.00 1.237 .155 .122 -.747 .243 you to patronize this restaurant (new upscale restaurant)? What would you expect an 340 $6.00 $60.00 $18.8353 $9.82784 1.388 .132 1.890 .264 average evening meal entree item alone to be priced? Which section of the local 379 1 5 3.16 1.329 -.065 .125 -1.064 .250 newspaper would you say you read most frequently? What is your highest level of 400 1 8 5.77 1.413 -1.848 .122 3.320 .243 education? Which of the following 400 1 7 4.18 1.749 .200 .122 -.784 .243 categories best describes your before tax household income? Valid N (listwise) 321 1. What is the level of skewness for the variable, ‘Which section of the local newspaper would you say you read most frequently?’ (-.065) 2. Is the level of skewness of any concern to the researcher? (no, not above + or – 2) 3. If the level of skewness for this variable in question one was, hypothetically, -2.44, would this be any concern to the researcher (no because the variable is nominal so we don’t need to worry about it) 4. Because the level of skewness is negative, which way, compared to the normal curve, is the variable skewed (since its negative, it is skewed to the left) 5. Which of the variables above have a level of skewness that requires more investigation (none since none are over + or – 2) 6. Which variable(s) have a level of kurtosis that requires more investigation? (‘highest level of education’) 7. What kind of variable is the one found in question 6, nominal or not nominal (for the purposes of the exam, assume this variable is nominal) 8. What level is the kurtosis of the variable you identified in question 6? (3.320) 9. What kind of shape does the variable have in question 6: (pointier, compared to normal curve since it is positive) 10. If the kurtosis was -3.320, what kind of shape would that have (flatter than normal curve) 11. If we have high skewness or kurtosis and the variable is not-nominal, what do we use (non-parametric statistics) 12. Do either skewness or kurtosis have any significance values attached to them (NO: there are no significance or SIG data given by SPSS for skewness or kurtosis!) 1 PRACTICE QUESTIONS: CORRELATIONS IMPORTANT CLARIFICATION: If you are reading horizontally, (left to right) just count up ALL of the significant ones all the way across, no matter what side of the red line they are on!!! Many people make the mistake of reading both horizontally and vertically. The red line is to prevent you double counting when you try to read both vertically and horizontally. Note the top corner is identical to the bottom corner: .867, .000, 400. The closer the correlation is to plus or minus one, the bigger (more important) it is. The smaller the SIG, the more important it is. Recoded How likely How many total Would you income to would it be for dollars do you describe Prefer Formal $1,000s using you to patronize spend per month yourself as one Waitstaff What is your midpoints of this restaurant in restaurants (for who listens to Wearing highest level of questionnaire (new upscale your meals only)? the radio? Tuxedos education? Year Born ranges restaurant)? How many total dollars do Pearson Correlation 1 -.106 .820 .602 -.431 .859 .867 you spend per month in Sig. (2-tailed) .034 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 restaurants (for your meals N
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