MKT 400 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Web 2.0, Guerrilla Marketing, Škoda Auto

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MKT400 Midterm Notes 10/18/2012 8:38:00 AM
Midterm Notes
Chapter 1, 4, 6, 11, 14, 16
Week 2: Demographics and Lifestyles Chapter 6, 14
Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles
Personality: refers to a person‟s unique psychological makeup and
how it consistently influences the way he or she responds to the
Consumer Behaviour on the Couch: Freudian Theory
Freud developed the idea that much of human behaviour stems
from a fundamental conflict between a person‟s desire to gratify his
or her physical needs and the necessity to function as a responsible
member of society
Freudian Systems
o Id: part of mind that is entirely oriented toward immediate
gratification (“party animal” of the mind)
Id is selfish and illogical, directs psychic energy toward
pleasurable acts without regards to consequence
o Pleasure principle: behaviour is guided by the primary desire
to maximize pleasure and avoid pain
o Superego: counterweigh to the id, essentially a person‟s
Internalizes society‟s rules and works to prevent the id
from seeking selfish gratification
o Ego: the system that mediates between the id and superego
Tries to fight opposing sides according to the reality
Motivational Research
Motivational research: approach largely based on psychoanalytic
interpretations, with a heavy emphasis on unconscious motives
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o Basic assumption is that socially unacceptable needs are
channeled into acceptable outlets
Motivational research relies on in-depth interviews, using few
consumers and probes deeply into each person‟s purchase
Motivational research has great appeal to at least some marketers
for several reasons, some of which are:
o Cost efficiency: motivational research tends to be less
expensive than large scale, quantitative surveys because
interviewing and data-processing costs are minimal
o Providing insights: knowledge derived from motivational
research can possibly help to develop marketing
communications that appeal to deep-seated needs and thus
provide a more powerful hook to relate a product to
o Intuitive sense: some of the findings seem intuitively
plausible after the fact
Neo-Freudian Theories
Karen Horney: proposed that people can be described as moving
toward others (compliant), away from others (detached), or against
others (aggressive). Indicates that each type prefers different
Carl Jung: developed psychology, which emphasized both the
individual‟s development as a creative person (his/her future) and
his or her individual/racial history in the formation of personality
o Believed people shaped by cumulative experiences of past
o Collective unconscious: a storehouse of memories inherited
from our ancestral past
o Archetypes: universally shared ideas and behaviour patterns
Trait Theory
Traits: identifiable characteristics that define a person
Some traits include:
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o Innovativeness (degree which a person likes to try new
o Materialism (the amount of emphasis placed on acquiring and
owning products)
o Self-consciousness (the degree to which a person deliberately
monitors and controls the image of the self that is portrayed
to others)
o Need for cognition (degree to which a person likes to think
about things, and by extension, to expend the necessary
effort to process brand information)
Idiocentrics (having an individualist orientation)
Allocentrics (having a group orientation)
Some differences between these two personalities include
o Contentment
o Health consciousness
o Food preparation
o Workaholics
o Travel and entertainment
Problems with Trait Theory in Consumer Research
o Marketing researchers simply have not been able to predict
CB on the basis of measured behaviour
o Some explanations have been offered:
Many of the scales are not sufficiently valid or reliable
Personality tests are often developed for specific
The tests often are not administered under the
appropriate conditions
The researchers often make changes in the instruments
to adapt them to their own situations, in the process
deleting or adding items and renaming variables
Many traits scales are intended to measure gross,
overall tendencies (such as emotional stability or
Brand Personality
Brand personality: the set of traits people attribute to a product as
if it were a person
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