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Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles.docx

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MKT 400
Melanie Dempsey

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MKT400 Understanding Customers and the New Media CHAPTER 6 Personality and Lifestyles PERSONALITY  Personality: person’s unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way he or she responds to the environment  Personality is recognized based on person’s underlying characteristics and that situational factors often play a large role in determining behaviour CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ON THE COUCH: FREUDIAN THEORY  Freud developed the idea that human behaviour stems from fundamental conflict between desire to gratify physical needs and necessity to function as a responsible member of society  Three systems carried out in the mind: 1. Id: oriented toward immediate gratification – it is the “party animal” of the mind  Pleasure principle: behaviour is guided by primary desire to maximize pleasure and avoid pain  Id is selfish and illogical without regard for any consequences 2. Superego: system that internalizes society’s rules and that works to prevent the id from seeking selfish gratification 3. Ego: system that mediates between the id and the superego MOTIVATIONAL RESEARCH  Motivational research: qualitative research approach, based on psychoanalytic (Freudian) interpretations, which heavy emphasis on unconscious motives o Relies on in-depth interviews to probe deeply into each person’s purchase motivations  Has great appeal to some marketers for several reasons: o Cost efficiency – less expensive than large-scale, quantitative surveys because interviewing and data-processing costs are relatively minimal o Providing insights – helps to develop marketing communications that appeal to deep-seated needs and thus provide a more powerful hook to relate a product to consumers o Intuitive sense – some findings seem intuitively plausible after the fact  Neo-Freudian theories: i. Karen Horney proposed that people can be described as moving toward others (complaint), away from others (detached), or against others (aggressive) ii. Carl Jung emphasized both individual’s development as a creative person (their future) and their individual and racial history (their past) in the formation of personality  Development of analytical psychology lead to emphasis of collective unconscious, which is a storehouse of memories inherited from our ancestral past  Archetypes: universally shared ideas and behaviour patterns TRAIT THEORY  Traits: identifiable characteristics that define a person o Trait dimension relevant to consumer behaviour is the extent to which a person is motivated to consume in order to please others or to fit in versus the extent to which a person consumes to express a unique sense of self without much concern about being accepted by a group  Idiocentrics: having individual orientations  Allocentrics: having a group orientation and receive something of value from the group  Differences between idiocentrics and allocentrics personality types: o Contentment – idiocentrics are more satisfied with the way things are going in their life than allocentrics o Health consciousness – allocentrics more likely to avoid foods that are high in cholesterol, high salt content and additives o Food preparation – allocentrics spend more time preparing meals o Workaholics – idiocentrics more likely to say they work hard most of the time and stay late at work more often o Travel and entertainment – idiocentrics are more interested in other cultures and travelling BRAND PERSONALITY  Brand personality: set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person MKT400 Understanding Customers and the New Media  Brand equity: the extent to which consumers hold strong, favourable, and unique associations with a brand in memory – and the extent to which they are willing to pay more for the branded version of a product than for a non-branded (generic) version  Some personality dimensions that can be used to compare and contrast the perceived characteristics of brands in various product categories include: old-fashioned, wholesome, traditional; surprising, lively, “with it”; serious, intelligent, efficient; glamorous, romantic, sexy; rugged outdoorsy, tough, athletic  Animism: inanimate objects are given qualities that make them somehow alive o Two types of animism can be identified to describe the extent to which human qualities are attributed to a product i. Level 1 – in highest order of animism, object is believed to be possessed by the soul of the being o Allows consumers to feel that the spirit of the celebrity” is available through the brand or the brand has strong association with a loved one ii. Level 2 – objects are anthropomorphized (given human characteristics) o Cartoon character or mythical created treated as if it were a person, and assumed to have human feelings LIFESTYLES AND PSYCHOGRAPHICS LIFESTYLE: WHO WE ARE, WHAT WE DO  Lifestyle: a pattern of consumption reflecting a person’s choice of how he or she spends time and money o Consumers can be distinguished by their social class, which can be determined by the proportion of expenditures on food, advanced technology, or such information-intensive goods as entertainment and education  Lifestyle marketing perspective recognizes that people sort themselves into groups on the basis of the things they like to do, how they like to spend their leisure time, and how they choose to spend t
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