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Chapter 7 Survey Measurement Scales.docx

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MKT 500
Tina West

MKT500 Marketing Research CHAPTER 7 Survey Measurement Scales QUESTION-RESPONSE FORMAT OPTIONS  Three basic question-response formats 1. Open-ended response format questions: the subject is asked to respond in his or her own words  Unaided open-ended format: does not prompt or probe the respondent beyond the initial question  Aided open-ended format: there s response probe in the form of a follow-up question instructing interviewer to ask for additional information o Intent is to encourage respondent to provide information beyond the initial and possibly superficial first comments 2. Categorical response format questions: provides answer options on the questionnaire  Used when researcher already knows possible response to a question  Dual-choice question: respondent must select one answer from only two possible alternatives  Multiple-choice category question: several options to choose from  “Check all that applies” question: appears to be a multiple-choice category question is really a dual-choice question 3. Metric/scaled response format questions: calls for a number to be provided by the respondent or uses a scale developed by the researcher  Natural metric/scaled response format: respondent asked to give a number that measures the property being investigated, such as age, number of visits, number of dollars, and so on  Synthetic metric/scaled response format: uses artificial number to measure the property, such as scale descriptors (poor, fair, good, very good, excellent) CONSIDERATIONS IN CHOOSING A QUESTION-RESPONSE FORMAT  Four considerations when narrowing down which possible response formats for questions on a questionnaire o Nature of the property being measured o Previous research studies  If researcher believes question format to be suitable for the purpose of the study at hand, good practice to adopt or adapt it rather than invent a new one o Ability of the respondent o Scale level desired  Certain statistical analyses incorporate assumptions about the nature of the measures being analyzed  If researcher desires to use higher-level statistical analyses, the question must have a scaled-response format BASIC CONCEPTS IN MEASUREMENT  Measurement: determines if a property is possessed by an object and, if so, how much of it o What is being measured are properties – sometimes called attributes or qualities – of objects  Properties: the specific features or characteristics of an object that can be used to distinguish it from another object  Objective properties: physically verifiable characteristics such as age, income, number of bottles purchased, store last visited, and so on (observable and tangible)  Subjective properties: cannot be directly observed because they are mental constructs, such as a person’s attitude or intentions (unobservable and intangible SCALE CHARACTERISTICS  Scale development: consists of designing questions and response formats to measure the subjective properties of an object  Four characteristics of sales: o Description: use of a unique descriptor, or label, to stand for each designation in the scale o Order: relative sizes of the descriptors; includes distinctions as “greater than,” “less than,” and “equal to” o Distance: differences between the descriptors are known and may be expressed in units o Origin: if there is a true zero point for the scale LEVELS OF MEAUREMENT SCALES  Categorical scale: typically composed of a small number of distance values or categories, such as "male" versus "female," or "married" versus "single" versus "widowed" MKT500 Marketing Research  Metric scale: composed of numbers or labels that have an underlying measurement continuum  Four levels of measurement: o Nominal scales: only uses labels; possess only the characteristic of description o Ordinal scales: rank-order respondents or their responses  Indicates only relative size differences among objects; does not possess distance or origin o Interval scales:
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