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MKT 500 Study Guide - Psychographic, Operational Definition, Face Validity

Course Code
MKT 500
Tina West

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MKT500 Marketing Research
CHAPTER 7 Survey Measurement Scales
Three basic question-response formats
1. Open-ended response format questions: the subject is asked to respond in his or her own words
Unaided open-ended format: does not prompt or probe the respondent beyond the initial
Aided open-ended format: there s response probe in the form of a follow-up question
instructing interviewer to ask for additional information
o Intent is to encourage respondent to provide information beyond the initial and possibly
superficial first comments
2. Categorical response format questions: provides answer options on the questionnaire
Used when researcher already knows possible response to a question
Dual-choice question: respondent must select one answer from only two possible alternatives
Multiple-choice category question: several options to choose from
“Check all that applies” question: appears to be a multiple-choice category question is really a
dual-choice question
3. Metric/scaled response format questions: calls for a number to be provided by the respondent or uses a scale
developed by the researcher
Natural metric/scaled response format: respondent asked to give a number that measures the
property being investigated, such as age, number of visits, number of dollars, and so on
Synthetic metric/scaled response format: uses artificial number to measure the property, such
as scale descriptors (poor, fair, good, very good, excellent)
Four considerations when narrowing down which possible response formats for questions on a questionnaire
o Nature of the property being measured
o Previous research studies
If researcher believes question format to be suitable for the purpose of the study at hand, good practice
to adopt or adapt it rather than invent a new one
o Ability of the respondent
o Scale level desired
Certain statistical analyses incorporate assumptions about the nature of the measures being analyzed
If researcher desires to use higher-level statistical analyses, the question must have a scaled-response
Measurement: determines if a property is possessed by an object and, if so, how much of it
o What is being measured are properties sometimes called attributes or qualities of objects
Properties: the specific features or characteristics of an object that can be used to distinguish it from another object
Objective properties: physically verifiable characteristics such as age, income, number of bottles purchased, store last
visited, and so on (observable and tangible)
Subjective properties: cannot be directly observed because they are mental constructs, such as a person’s attitude or
intentions (unobservable and intangible
Scale development: consists of designing questions and response formats to measure the subjective properties of an object
Four characteristics of sales:
o Description: use of a unique descriptor, or label, to stand for each designation in the scale
o Order: relative sizes of the descriptors; includes distinctions as “greater than,” “less than,” and “equal to”
o Distance: differences between the descriptors are known and may be expressed in units
o Origin: if there is a true zero point for the scale
Categorical scale: typically composed of a small number of distance values or categories, such as "male" versus "female," or
"married" versus "single" versus "widowed"
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