MKT 500 Study Guide - Response Bias, Episodic Memory, Umbrella Brand

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27 Mar 2013
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MKT400 Understanding Customers and the New Media
CHAPTER 3 Learning and Memory
THE LEARNING PROCESS
Learning: relatively permanent change in behaviour that is caused by experience
o Experience does not have to affect learner directly; we can learn vicariously by observing events that affect others
o Incidental learning refers to casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge
It is an ongoing process where our knowledge about the world is constantly being revised as we are exposed to new stimuli
and receive ongoing feedback that allows us to modify behaviour in other similar situations at a later time
BEHAVIOURAL LEARNING THEORIES
Behavioural learning theories: assumes learning takes place as the result of responses to external events
This view is represented by two major approaches to learning:
1. Classical conditioning
2. Instrumental conditioning
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Classical conditioning: occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not
elicit a response on its own
o Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): stimulus naturally capable of causing a response
o Conditioned stimulus (CS): stimulus that causes a response because of a learned association
o Conditioned response (CR): new or modified response elicited by a stimulus after conditioning
Repeated exposure increases strength of stimulus-response associations and prevent decay of associations in memory
Extinction: occurs when the effects of prior conditioning are reduced and finally disappear
o Can occur when product is overexposed in the marketplace that original allure is lost
Stimulus generalization: tendency of stimuli similar to a CS to evoke similar conditioned responses
o Strategies based on stimulus generalization include:
Family branding variety of products capitalize on the reputation of a company name
Product line extensions related products are added to an established brand
Licensing well-known names are “rented” by others
Look-alike packaging distinctive packaging designs create strong associations with a particular brand
Masked branding: deliberately hides products true origin
Stimulus discrimination: occurs when stimulus similar to a CS is not followed by a UCS
Symbolic significance of initially meaningless words show complex meanings can be conditioned by fairly simple
associations to marketing strategies that rely on creation and perpetuation of positive brand equity
Brand equity: brand has strong positive associations in a consumer’s memory and commands a lot of loyalty as a result
Schedules of exposure implies repetition is needed to ensure consumer actually exposed to (and processes) ad:
i. First exposure creates awareness of the product
ii. Second demonstrates its relevance to the consumer
iii. Third servers as a reminder of the product’s benefits
Advertising wearout: the condition that occurs when consumers become so used to hearing or seeing a marketing stimulus
that they no longer pay attention to it
INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING
Instrumental conditioning (operant conditioning): occurs as individual learns to perform behaviours that produce positive
outcomes and to avoid those that yield negative outcomes
o Result of a reward received following the desired behaviour and takes place over a period in which a variety of
other behaviours are attempted and abandoned because they are not reinforced
Shaping: learning of a desired behaviour over time by rewarding immediate actions until the final result is obtained
Instrumental learning occurs in one of four ways
i. Positive reinforcement: process whereby rewards provided by the environment strengthen responses to
stimuli
ii. Negative reinforcement: process whereby environment weakens responses to stimuli so that inappropriate
behaviour is avoided
iii. Punishment: learning that occurs when a response is followed by unpleasant events
iv. Extinction: removal of positive event weakens responses, which are no longer followed by positive outcomes
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Document Summary

Learning: relatively permanent change in behaviour that is caused by experience: experience does not have to affect learner directly; we can learn vicariously by observing events that affect others. Incidental learning refers to casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge. Behavioural learning theories: assumes learning takes place as the result of responses to external events. This view is represented by two major approaches to learning: classical conditioning. Repeated exposure increases strength of stimulus-response associations and prevent decay of associations in memory. Extinction: occurs when the effects of prior conditioning are reduced and finally disappear: can occur when product is overexposed in the marketplace that original allure is lost. Stimulus generalization: tendency of stimuli similar to a cs to evoke similar conditioned responses. Family branding variety of products capitalize on the reputation of a company name. Product line extensions related products are added to an established brand. Licensing well-known names are rented by others.

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