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MKT500 Study Notes.docx

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Ryerson University
MKT 500
Helene Moore

Chapter 3 Research Design - Three categories of studies: exploratory, descriptive, or causal (experiments) Research Design - Research Design set of advance decisions that make up the master plan, specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information The Significance of Research Design - Once the problem and the research objectives are known, the researcher selects a research design - Good research is good research design Three Types of Research Design - Research has one of three objectives: 1. To gain background information in order to develop hypotheses 2. To measure the state of a variable of interest (level of brand loyalty for example) 3. To test hypotheses that specify the relationships between two or more variables (ex. Advertising vs. brand loyalty) - The less that is known, the less exploratory research will be used - Causal research should be only used when a fair amount about the problem is known and the researcher is looking for causal relationships amongst variables associated with the problem or the research objectives Research Design: A Caution - It is incorrect to think of research design in a step-by-step fashion Exploratory Research - Exploratory research most commonly unstructured, informal research that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem o It does not have a formalized set of objectives, sample plan or questionnaire o Can be accomplished by simply reading a magazine or even observing a situation Uses of Exploratory Research - Gain background information o Exploratory research may be used to gain much-needed background information - Define terms and concepts - Clarify problems and hypotheses o To define the problem more precisely and to generate hypotheses for the upcoming study - Establish research priorities o Can help a firm prioritize research topics in order of importance Methods of Conducting Exploratory Research - Secondary Data Analysis process of searching and interpreting existing information relevant to the research objectives - Experience Surveys refers to gathering information from those thought to be knowledgeable on the issues relevant to the research problem - Case Analysis review of available information about former situations that have some similarities to the present research problem - Focus Groups small groups of people brought together and guided by a moderator through an unstructured spontaneous discussion or the purpose of gaining information relevant to the research problem - Other Techniques o Qualitative research collecting, analyzing, interpreting data by observing what people do and say o Depth interviews in which probing questions are posed one-on-one to a subject by a trained interviewer so as to gain ideas as to what the respondent is thinking or why he/she behaves in a certain way o Protocol analysis in which respondents are placed in a decision-making setting and asked to verbalize everything they consider when making a purchase decision o Projective techniques in which consumers hidden motives when buying are explored o Ethnographic research in which a detailed, descriptive observation study of a group and its behavior, characteristics, culture and so on, is undertaken Descriptive Research - Descriptive research is undertaken to describe answers to questions of who, what, where, when and how Classification of Descriptive Research Studies - Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of the population at only point in time - Sample surveys are cross-sectional studies whose samples are drawn in such a way as to be representative of a specific population - Cross-sectional studies are also used to test proposed advertising by using storyboards o A storyboard consists of several drawings depicting the major scenes in a proposed ad, as well as the proposed advertising copy - Longitudinal studies repeatedly measure the same sample units of a population over a period of time. Because longitudinal studies involve multiple measurements, they are often described as movies of the population - Panels represent sample units who have agreed to answer questions at periodic intervals. Maintaining a representative panel of respondents is a major undertaking - There are two types of panels: continuous and discontinuous o Continuous panels ask panel members the same questions over a period of time. Continuous panel examples include many of the syndicated data panels that ask panel members to record their purchases using diaries or scanners Brand-switching studies can use continuous panels to collet data in order to show how panel members switched brands from one time period to another o Discontinuous panels vary questions from one panel measurement to the next Omnibus panels sometimes referred to as this, each panel survey covers many things o Another use of longitudinal data is that market tracking Market-tracking studies are those that measure some variable(s) of interestthat is market share or unit sales over time Causal Research - Causality can be thought of as understanding phenomenon in terms of conditional statements of the form If x, then y. These if-then statements become a way of manipulating variables of interest Experiment - Experiment defined as the manipulation of an independent variable to see how it affects a dependent variable, while the effects of additional extraneous variables are also controlled - Independent variables those variables that the researcher has control over and whishes to manipulate - Dependent variables those variables over which there is little or no direct control, yet in which the researcher has a strong interest. These variables cannot be changed in the same way independent variables can be changed - Extraneous variables are those that may have some effect on a dependent variable but that are not independent variables Experimental Design - Experimental design is a procedure for creating an experimental setting such that a change in a dependent variable may be attributed solely to the change in an independent variable O = measurement of dependent variable X = manipulation, or change, of an independent variable R = random assignment of subjects to experimental and control groups E = experimental effect, the change in the dependent variable b/c of independent variable - Pretest measurement of the dependent variable is taken prior to changing independent variable - Posttest dependent variable is taken after changing the independent variable - True experimental design is one that truly isolates the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable while controlling for effects of any extraneous variables Quasi-experimental Design: After-Only Design - After-only design achieved by changing the independent variable and, after some period of time measuring the dependent variable - Quasi-experimental designs designs that do not properly control for the effects of extraneous variables on the dependent variable
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