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Chapter 9 Measuring Sources of Brand Equity Capturing Customer Mind-Set.docx

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MKT 510
Ida Berger

MKT510 Innovations In Marketing CHAPTER 9 Measuring Sources of Brand Equity: Capturing Customer Mind-Set  Measuring sources of customer-based brand equity requires us to measure various aspects of brand awareness and brand image that can lead to differential customer response making up brand equity QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TECHNIQUES  Qualitative research techniques: identify possible brand associations and sources of brand equity o Unstructured measurement approaches that permit range of both questions and answers and so can often be useful first step in exploring consumer brand and product perceptions Free Association  Free association tasks in which subjects are asked what comes to mind when they think of the brand, without any more specific probes or cue than perhaps the associated product category o Used to identify range of possible brand associations in consumers’ minds, but may also provide some rough indication of relative strength, favorability, and uniqueness of brand associations  Coding free association responses in terms of order of elicitation – whether they are early or late in sequence – at least gives rough measure of strength  Two issues are types of probes to give subjects, and how to code and interpret the resulting data Projective Techniques  Projective techniques: diagnostic tools to uncover true opinions and feelings of consumers when they are unwilling or unable to express themselves on these matters o Present consumers with incomplete stimulus and ask them to complete it, or give consumers ambiguous stimulus and ask them to make sense of it o Provides useful insights that help assemble a more complete picture of consumers and their relationships with brands  Rorschach test: presents ink blots to subjects and ask them what the ink blots remind them of  “Bubble exercises” where empty bubbles are place in scenes to represent thoughts, words, or actions of one or more of the participants o Stories and conversations told this way useful for assessing user and usage imagery for a brand  Comparison tasks where ask consumers to convey their impressions by comparing brands to people, countries, animals, activities, fabrics, occupations, cars, magazines, vegetables, nationalities, or even brand o Objects people choose represent the brand and their reasons can provide glimpses into psyche of consumer with respect to a brand, particularly useful in understanding imagery associations  Archetype: fundamental psychological association, shared by the members of the culture with a given cultural object o Initial exposure to element of their world is called “imprinting moment” Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique  ZMET: based on a belief that consumers often have subconscious motives for their purchasing behaviour o It is a technique for eliciting interconnected constructs that influence thought and behaviour o Stems knowledge and research from various fields such as cognitive neuroscience, neurobiology, art critique, literary criticism, visual anthropology, visual sociology, semiotics, art therapy, and psycholinguistics  Uses advanced interview techniques to explore images with participant and reveal their deep ideas, archetypes, themes, and emotions through a “guided conversation”  Interview consists of series of steps, each with specific purpose in mind: 1. Storytelling – exploring individual visual metaphors 2. Expand the frame – expanding the metaphoric meaning of images 3. Sensory metaphor – eliciting metaphors about research topic from each sensory modality 4. Vignette – using mind’s eye to create short story about research topic 5. Digital image – integrating images to create visual summary of research topic Neural Research Method  Neuromarketing: study of how the brain responds to marketing stimuli o Used to measure type of emotional response consumers exhibit when presented with marketing stimuli MKT510 Innovations In Marketing  Neurological research shown that people activate different regions of the brain in assessing the personality traits of people than they do when assessing brands Brand Personality and Values  Brand personality scale that reflects following five factors (with underlying facets) of brand personality on seven-point scale 1. Sincerity – down-to-earth, honest, wholesome, and cheerful 2. Excitement – daring, spirited, imaginative, and up-to-date 3. Competence – reliable, intelligent, and successful 4. Sophistication – upper class and charming 5. Ruggedness – outdoorsy and tough Ethnographic and Experiential Methods  Ethnographic research uses “thick description: based on participant observation o Goal is to extract and interpret deep cultural meanings of events and activities through various research techniques such as consumer immersion, site visits, shop-along, embedded research, etc.  Mystery shoppers are paid researchers who pose as customers to learn about the service experience provided by a company QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH TECHNIQUES  Quantitative research: employs various types of scale questions from which researchers can draw numerical representations and summaries o More definitively assess depth and breadth of brand awareness; strength, favorability, and uniqueness of brand associations; the positivity of brand judgements and feelings; and extent and nature of brand relationships Brand Awareness  Brand awareness describes likelihood that a brand will come to mind in different situations, and ease with which it does so given different types of cues  Several measures of awareness of brand elements: o Brand recognition – requires customers to identify brand under variety of circumstances and can rest on identification of any of the brand elements  Basic recognition test gives customers set of individual items visually or orally and asks them whether they think they’ve previously seen or heard of these items  Recognition measures test “perceptually degraded” versions of the brand, which are masked or distorted in some way or shown for extremely brief durations  Research methods using tachistoscopes (T-scopes) and eye tracking techniques exist to test effectiveness of alternative package designs according to a number of specific criteria  Advantage is that measures have over recall measures is the change to use visual recognition o Brand recall – retrieving actual brand element from memory when given some related probe or cue  Unaided recall: basis of “all brands” provided as a cue is likely to identify only the very strongest brands  Aided recall: uses various types of cues to help consumer recall  Using progressively narrower cues – such as product class, product category, and product type labels – to provide insight into organization of consumers’ brand knowledge structure  To capture breadth of brand recall and to assess brand salience, might examine context of purchase decision or consumption situation, such as different times and places o Corrections for guessing – spurious awareness occurs when consumers erroneously claim they recall something they really don’t and that may not even exist  High levels of reported recall were reported for plausible sounding  Problem with spurious awareness is that it may send misleading signals about proper strategic direction for a brand o Strategic
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