NUR 80A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Repeated Measures Design, Quasi, Qualitative Research

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3 Feb 2016
NSE 80B Week 1 1
NSE 80A || Week 1 Objectives
Nursing Research: Ch. 1,2,6,9
Ch. 3, pp. 45-48
Stats: Ch. 7
Liao et al. (2010)
Scrutinizing Quantitative Research Design: Types of design, Time dimension
What are the key methodologic decisions in choosing a quantitative design?
Will there be an intervention?
o In some studies:
o nurse researchers examine the effects of a new intervention (e.g., an innovative program to promote
smoking cessation);
o In other Studies:
o Researchers gather information about existing phenomena.
What types of comparison will be made?
o Researchers usually design their studies to involve comparisons that enhance the interpretability of the results
How will extraneous variables be controlled?
o The complexity of relationships among variables makes it difficult to test hypotheses unambiguously unless efforts
are made to control confounding factors (i.e., to control extraneous variables)
When and how many times will data be collected?
o In many studies, data are collected from participants at a single point in time, but some studies include multiple
contacts with participants
o For example
To determine how things have changed over time. The research design designates the frequency and
timing of data collection.
In what setting will the study take place?
o Data for quantitative studies sometimes are collected in real-world settings, such as in clinics or people’s homes.
o Other studies are conducted in highly controlled environments established for research purposes (e.g.,
Types of Qualitative Designs:
use active agents rather than passive observers
complexity of naturally occurring events often obscures relationships- this was addressed by isolating phenomena in labs,
and controlling conditions in which they occurred
Characteristics of Experiments:
1. Manipulation: experimenters do something to participants
2. Control: use of control groups
3. Randomization
Pretestpost-test design (or beforeafter design)
o This design involves the observation of the dependent variable (mood) at two points in time: before and after the
o Participants in the experimental group are subjected to a demanding exercise routine, whereas those in the control
group undertake a sedentary activity
o Permits us to examine what changes in mood were caused by the exertion because only some people were
subjected to it, providing an important comparison.
Basic Designs
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NSE 80B Week 1 2
involves randomizing subjects to different groups and subsequently measuring the dependent variable
It is a post-test-only (or after-only) design.
Advanced (Factorial) Designs:
Researchers sometimes manipulate two or more variables simultaneously.
Advanced (Crossover) Designs:
Is called between-subjects designs because the comparisons are between different people. When the
same subjects are compared, the designs are within subject’s designs.
Sometimes called a repeated measures design
Involves exposing participants to more than one treatment.
Such studies are true experiments only if participants are randomly assigned to different treatment
Has the advantage of ensuring the highest possible equivalence between subjects exposed to different
Experimental and Control Conditions:
Researchers delineate the full nature of the intervention in formal protocols that stipulate exactly what the treatment is for
those in the experimental group; research protocols usually are summarized in research reports.
Counterfactual- control group comparison as a basis of comparison
No interventionthe control group gets no treatment at all
An alternative treatment (e.g., auditory versus tactile stimulation)
A placebo or pseudo-intervention presumed to have no therapeutic value
Standard methods of carenormal procedures used to treat patients
A lower dose or intensity of treatment, or only parts of the treatment
Delayed treatment (i.e., exposure to the experimental treatment at a later point)
Experiments- Advantages and Disadvantages:
most powerful designs for testing hypothesis of cause and effect relationships
offers greater corroboration b/c of special controlling properties
not all variables can be manipulated
some variables cannot be ethically manipulated
experiments can be feasible b/c they are impractical
Hawthorne Effect: knowledge of being in a study may cause people to change their behaviour, thereby obscuring
the effect of the research variables.
Quasi- Experimental Designs:
Look a lot like experiments because they also involve the manipulation of an independent variable (i.e., the institution of a
Lack either the randomization or control-group features of true experimentsfeatures whose absence weakens the ability to
make causal inferences.
Non-equivalent Control Group Design before-after design
Which involves two or more groups of subjects observed before and after the implementation of an
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Which involves two or more groups of subjects observed before and after the implementation of an
WEAKER DESIGN b/c: it cannot be assumed that the experimental and comparison groups are equivalent
the outset.
Time-Series Design
Which involves collecting data over an extended time period, and introducing the treatment during that
Quasi- Experimental Designs: Advantages and Disadvantages-
V practical
Introduces research control!
Is that cause-and-effect inferences cannot be made as easily as with experiments.
With quasi-experiments, there are alternative explanations for observed results.
Non Experimental Studies:
Many research problems cannot be addressed with an experimental or quasi experimental design.
Sometimes the independent variable inherently cannot be manipulated, and in other cases, it is unethical to manipulate it.
Also, an experimental design is not appropriate if the study purpose is description.
Researcher collects data without introducing an intervention or treatment i.e. study what is naturally occurring
correlational (or ex post facto) research
o to study relationships among variables
o Retrospective design
o a phenomenon observed in the present is linked to phenomena occurring in the past: the researcher
focuses on a presently occurring outcome and then tries to ascertain antecedent factors that have caused
o This design involves comparing “cases” with a certain condition (e.g., breast cancer) with controls (women
without breast cancer) who are selected to be similar to the cases with regard to background factors (e.g.,
family history of breast cancer) that could be linked to the condition.
o Prospective design
o By contrast, start with a presumed cause and then go forward to the presumed effect.
Descriptive Research:
o Purpose: is to observe, describe, and document a phenomenon.
o Descriptive correlational, meaning that researchers were interested in describing relationships among variables,
without seeking to establish causal connections.
Non Experimental Studies- Advantages and Disadvantages:
o many interesting problems not amenable to experimentation
o crucial role in nursing when experimentation is not possible
o tends to be high in realism
o efficient and effective means of collecting large amount of data
o inability to reveal causal relationships conclusively
o susceptible to faulty interpretations due to pre-existing differences
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