NUR 830 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Nursing, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Canada

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30 Nov 2019
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Current Issues Week 4
September 27, 2018
10:21 AM
McIntyre, M., & McDonald, C. (2019). Chapter 11: Graduate education. In Realities of Canadian nursing: Professional,
practice, and power issues (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 183-200.
Objectives
Understand the implications of the historical context in which graduate nursing education in Canada
has evolved.
Identify specific challenges faced in Canada by nurses with graduate preparation at various levels.
Recognize the impact of various social, economic, and political forces on the practice realities of
Canadian nurses who have graduate degrees.
Interpret current issues and controversies associated with graduate nursing education in Canada.
Examine trends in society as they shape current graduate nursing education.
Identify opportunities for the nursing profession in Canada to direct its future though strategic
advancement of graduate education.
Evolution of Master’s degree
Prior to master’s launch, nurses went other countries (mostly US) for graduate studies
Did graduate work in public health, education, medical sciences, social sciences, or business
admin
o Drew nurses away from the focus of the profession
Main challenge
o Make more people aware of the relevance of graduate nursing programs due to lack of
confidence that graduate nursing would produce high quality graduates in fields of
nursing education or health administration
o Programs designed w/ nurses specifically in mind were somewhat outside of the
disciplinary core
Shift of focus from education and admin to leadership and clinical specialization
Master programs shifting to optional from mandatory research w/ thesis
Canada’s first doctoral program in nursing launched at the University of Alberta in 1991
First master’s program in nursing in Canada launched @ University of Western Ontario in
1959
Evolution of Doctoral Degree Programs
Nurse leaders agreed upon conditions under which these programs could be established
o Universities w/ successful track record of undergraduate and master’s programming
o Close proximity to a full range of interdisciplinary doctoral and medical degree
programs
o Sufficient number of doctoral prepared faculty
o Explicit research development resources
o Sufficient level of research funding and high degree of scholarly productivity among a
range of faculty members
Canadian nursing doctoral programs are similar in structure throughout the country, and led
to contributions towards the profession
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o Provided nursing w/ high-quality research training
o Enabled capacity to study clinical phenomenon relevant to nursing
o Provided leadership to direct development of scholarly practice
o Grounded analytic skills to design systems of nursing practice and healthcare delivery
o Created leaders w/ expertise in the art and science of nursing
Difficulty in obtaining funding for student support
o Nursing research areas are not considered a priority for funding in comparison to
medicine, health service, or social science
Practice Realities and Challenges for Graduate-Prepared Nurses
Focus
o Advanced practice roles in clinical settings
o Doctorate level nurses were concentrated in producing the next generation of nurses
o Shifting towards preparing clinical scientists instead of only faculty
Advance preparation in nursing was a way to get away from the bedside and toward
administration and education
o Led to issues of skepticism and distrust among mainstream nurses of the value of
advanced nursing education and its contribution to the profession
o Absence of endorsement or support from colleagues who interpret advance education
as abandonment
Doctorate level nurses have difficulty applying skills in clinical context
Focus on research, other leadership roles can be compromised by being overlooked
Issues and controversies
Belief there is an option w/ graduate education b/w nursing and another discipline and look
elsewhere for career advancement
Thru other disciplines, have derived benefits in theoretical diversity, methodology, and
analytic process from other disciplines as nursing is inherently interdisciplinary
o Lead to lack of understanding of theoretical, historical, and philosophical grounding of
nursing and its importance
Need for leaders who understand the theoretical underpinnings of nursing’s disciplinary
knowledge and can effectively articulate contributions of the profession
Theoretical debates
Nursing theory emerged as mechanism to organize and understand new knowledge in a
variety of disciplines, specify it to nursing, and address the urgent need to articulate the
distinctiveness of the profession in healthcare w/ expansion and increasing influence of
physicians and other HCPs
Nursing theory began to move toward a humanistic approach and away from traditional
science
o Turf war began b/w diff ideologies, brought focus back to importance of theoretical
underpinnings
Philosophical challenges
QL vs QN methodological debate
Shift away from “truths and fact” toward QL approach
May find themselves cross roads
o Both methodologies are needed to create nursing knowledge
Practical challenges
Few sources of funding for development of nursing knowledge
Career opportunities in other fields are created/prioritized at the expense of nursing
knowledge/research
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