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# PCS 227- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 12 pages long!)

Department
Physics
Course Code
PCS 227
Professor
Karshafian
Study Guide
Midterm

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Ryerson
PCS 227
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 12 | Temperature and Heat | Notes
Temperature:
Temperature in Kelvin (K):
 
Thermal Expansion (Linear Thermal Expansion of a Solid):
Example: The Stress on a Steel Beam
The beam is mounted between two concrete supports when the temperature is 23. What
compressional stress must the concrete supports apply to each end of the beam, if they are to
keep the beam from expanding when the temperature rises to 42. Steel’s Yong’s Modulus: 2.0
x 1011 N/m2. Steel’s Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: 12.0 x 10-6
.

  
    
   
   

 
   
Volume Thermal Expansion:
  
 
Heat:
Heat is the energy that flows from a higher temperature object to a lower temperature object
because of a difference in temperatures. SI Unit of Heat is Joules (J).
The heat flows from hot to a cold originates in the internal energy of the hot substance.
The heat that must be supplied or removed to change the temperature of a substance is:
   
Where Q is the heat, m is the mass, c is the specific heat capacity and  is the change in
temperature.
 
   

 

 



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The value of the specific heat of a gas depends on whether the pressure or volume is held
constant.
The heat supplied or removed in changing the phase of a substance:
 
Where Q is the heat required, m is the mass and Lf is the latent heat of fusion (1.0 g Solid to
Liquid) or the latent heat of vaporization (1.0 g of Liquid to Gas).
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