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The Republic's main ideas throughout the course

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Ryerson University
PHL 101
Jo Kornegay

Philosophy 101 – the Republic Glaucon: 3 kinds of good Intrinsically- desired for their own sakes, such as joy or harmless pleasure Instrumentally and intrinsically good- they are both useful and desired for their own sakes, such as knowledge and health Instrumentally- not chosen for their own sakes, but because it’s necessary, such as medical treatment Glaucon believes that justice is strictly instrumentally good because he believes that all who practice justice do so unwillingly. Contract argument: injustice is good for one but bad for the other. Each person wants to do injustice to another but does not want to suffer injustices. We create laws and the obedience to these laws are called justice. This is called mutual restraint, which deters people from seeking an advantage over their neighbour. Glaucon believes that restraining oneself is cause enough to be considered a burden because humans naturally want to out-do their neighbour, if we had the ability to do injustice to somebody without punishment, they would do it. We avoid breaking the laws in order to not be punished and receive a bad reputation. Ring of gyges: nobody would act justly if they had the ability to do injustice without punishment. Nobody is willing to do justice, they are just compelled to do so. Education and training of the guardians Physical traits: keen senses, speed and strength Psychological traits: courageous and spirited Traditional views: people would study physical exercise for a sound boy, stud poetry, law and music for a sound mind. Children were forced to memorize poems from Homer including the Iliad’s and the Odyssey. Plato believed that this was the elementary way of teaching and offered a new way: Plato’s goal of correct education The guardians should have an inculcation of moral values of piety, courage, temperance and endurance. He believes that children are impressionable and the teachings must be supervised in order to expunge pernicious passages False theology: god’s are portrayed as hateful, criminal and deceitful beings who bring harm to humans. Plato believes that the God’s should be portrayed in a positive way. To expunge stories such as Oedipus Rex because it would give more incent to worship. Issues of Role-models: God’s are virtuous and should only be portrayed in that way. Stories that show gods as vicious or pernicious should be expunged. Stories that see God’s manifestation of virtues should be expunged, like Achilles showing hatred when his cousin was killed. Depictions of the after-life: Plato believes that stories that portray death as a bad thing should be expunged. People believe in Hades and the terrors of the underworld, rather they should expunge these stories in order to make their guardians fearless in battle. These stories would make the guardians malleable, causing them to fear death in battle. Class structure: 3 classes: Gold: the rulers of the city. They are 50 and older, studied in math and philosophy, and have temperance. Rulers are the leaders of the society and are responsible for advancing the society as a whole, not one part at the expense of another. Silver/ auxiliaries: police and army personnel Bronze/ iron: economic community and regular citizens Principle of specialization: they believed that in order to build the perfect society, each person should be an expert of their field. People would be distributed into classes based on talents. Each person would have one job to practice for their life. People are naturally better at something that they focus on solely rather than having a number of different jobs. The people
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