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PHL 214
Gil Lan

PHL 214 SAMPLE TEST 2 A) True or False? 1. All sound arguments are valid. 2. An inductively strong argument may be deductively invalid. 3. An argument that affirms the consequent is invalid. 4. Arguments are deductive when they are intended to be valid. 5. The following argument is invalid: “Roses are red, and daffodils are yellow, and lilies are white. Therefore, flowers are probably coloured.” 6. The genetic fallacy is a kind of red herring. 7. In a straw man fallacy, the premises are irrelevant to the conclusion. B) Multiple Choice 1. An argument: “Sally is a mathematician. If she’s a mathematician, she’s bad at art. So she must be bad at art.” The argument (a) affirms the consequent (b) denies the consequent (c) affirms the antecedent (d) does none of these things. 2. An argument: “Either you’re Japanese or you’re Catholic, and seeing as you’re clearly not Japanese you must be Catholic.” The argument is (a) a hypothetical syllogism (b) a false dilemma (c) a disjunctive syllogism (d) an instance of denying the consequent (e) both b and c (f) a, b and c (g) None of the above 3. In any hypothetical syllogism, the conclusion and the premises are all (a) true (b) valid (c) both valid and sound (d) conditional statements (e) “or” statements (f) statements that cannot be known to be true, but which appear to be reasonable hypotheses 4. An argument: “If you’re human you’re Canadian. You are Canadian, so you must be human.” The argument is (a) invalid (b) valid (c) an instance of affirming the consequent (d) an instance of affirming the antecedent (e) None of the above 5. If two premises are “independent”, that means that (a) each rationally supports the (same) conclusion on its own (b) each is meant by the arguer to rationally support the (same) conclusion on its own (c) each can be known to be true (or reasonable to believe) independent of the other one (d) each can be known to be true (or reasonable to believe) independent of sensory experience (e) each is intended to be known to be true (or reasonable to believe) independent of the other (f) None of the above 6. One difference between deductive validity and inductive strength is that (a) the conclusion of an inductively strong argument is never certain (b) the conclusion of a deductively valid argument must be true, whereas the conclusion of an inductively strong argument need only be probable (c) if an argument is deductively valid, the premises are intended to make the conclusion 100% certai
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