FINAL EXAM REVIEW
o Use of a word in two different senses in an argument
Only man is rational.
No woman is a man.
Therefore, no woman is rational.
Appeal to Ignorance
o Arguing that a lack of evidence proves something
No one has shown that ghosts aren’t real,
so they must be real
Appeal to emotion
o Persuade someone of a conclusion solely by arousing their feelings
You should hire me for this job. If you don’t, I won’t be able
to pay for my mother’s heart medication.
o Deliberate raising of an irrelevant issue during an argument
Begging the Question
o Using the conclusion of an argument as a premise
o Often says the same thing, but using different words
o Asserting that there are only two options when there are more
o Asserting that there are two distinct options which may not be
mutually exclusive (or not independent of each other)
o To argue, without good reason, that taking one step will inevitably
lead to a further, undesirable step
o Drawing a conclusion about a whole group
o Arguing that because two things are similar in one respect, they
must be similar in another Chapter 6