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PHL214 Exam Review.docx

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PHL 214
Alex W.

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EXAM REVIEW Chapter 1: The Power of Critical Thinking • Assertion/statement • Deductive soundness • Proposition • Premise • Conclusion • Argument • Inference • Indicator words • Truth-value • Deductive validity • Deductive invalidity • Deductive soundness • Inductive arguments • Inductively strong arguments • Inductively weak arguments Chapter 2: “The ‘Environment’ of Critical Thinking” Key Terms: Critical Thinking; Fallacy; Knowledge, Propositional Knowledge; Belief; Truth; Justification; Subjective Relativism; Social Relativism; Skepticism Impediments to Critical Thinking Category 1: Hindrances due to how we think - e.g. self-interested thinking; group thinking Category 2: Hindrances due to what we think - Relativism (Subjective) - Relativism (Social) - Skepticism Chapter 3: Making Sense of Arguments • Conditional Statements • Disjunctive Statements • Deductive Argument Patterns – Affirming the antecedent – Denying the consequent – Hypothetical Syllogism – Denying the Antecedent – Affirming the Consequent – Disjunctive Syllogisms Key Terms: Argument classification; argument evaluation; implicit premise; implicit conclusion; Principle of Charity; and all the terms on the chart which classifies arguments. Lecture Outline: A Method for Classifying and Evaluating Arguments Step 0: Determine whether the passage contains an argument; Step 1: (a) Find the conclusion(s) (b) Find the premise(s) Steps 2,3,4: Work your way through the argument chart (next slide) to classify and evaluate the argument. Making Sense of Arguments (Conclusion) • Argument Classification • Diagramming an arg
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