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Ryerson University
PHL 551
Thomas Hart

Final Exam Review Aristotle Reality and Knowledge: -Greek philosopher, student of Plato said that the most fundamental features of reality is in the book of “Metaphysics” -believed experience is the key to demonstrate knowledge, though the study of “qua” helps to deliver a more deeper understanding of why things happen the way they do -said structure of language and logic naturally mirrors the way things really are -sometimes our knowledge falls behind of what we need in order to decide what is true of false, we can be sure that either it or its negation is true -believed that metaphysics is concerned with a unique subject matter, natural science deals with moveable things, metaphysics has objects that are both immoveable and separable, therefore we learn in metaphysics nothing less than the essence of the individual things -said “sensation” is the capacity for the soul which is changed as the contact is associated with the body of external objects ;Example: when I feel the point of the pin on my figure, it makes a impression on my figure, which conveys this form to my sensitive soul -thought” is more active process of engaging manipulation of forms without any contact of external objects, Example: thinking, it is independent, it abstracts the form alone, Example: imagination involves the operation of the common sense ,Even though all knowledge must begin with information acquired through the senses, results are achieved by rational means -“desire” is the movement towards some goal, Every human being is capable of responding to its internal states and external,Example: feel lack of some pleasure or feel presence of some pain -believed in the ability of induction, according to him the natural world was real and worthy of observations therefore, he relied a lot on his 5 senses Déscartes-Doubt: -is French philosopher who spent most of his life in Duth Repulic -attempts to arrive at a fundamental set of principles that can be known as true without any doubt -he rejects any idea that can be doubted and reestablishes it -he says if he “doubted” then someone or something is “doubting”,Example: if there is a sketch then there is proof in itself that it does exists -he believes that he is certain he exists because he thinks, he perceives this body through the use of the senses however these have been unreliable, so he says that the only indubitable knowledge is what he is thinking, thinking is what he does and the power comes from his essence -method of doubt was largely popular in western philosophy, Descartes sought to doubt the truth of all his beliefs in order to determine which beliefs he could be certain were true -method is broken down into 4 scientific steps (1)Accepting only information you know to be true (2)Breaking down these truths into smaller units (3)Solving the simple problems first (4)Making complete lists of further problems which is a tendency to doubt -he puts all beliefs, ideas, thoughts in a matter of doubt, he showed that any knowledge could just be false -believed primary knowledge must be doubted-said doubt everything until it could be proven to satisfaction, divide problems into as many parts needed to solve the problems, put your thoughts in order from simplest to complex, Example: what I am seeing may be illusion, there is nothing that proves it cannot be -believed that the mind and body were two different kinds things, he said the world is comprised of 2 substances which are the mind and body, a substance is nothing which requires itself to justify its existence -believed mind and body are separate substance and this substance is called dualism - otion of a substance to Descartes, was that which can exist independently of anything else. He believed that there is only one infinite substance which is god, but the mind and body are finite substances. Descartes believed that finite substances needed only God to exist. These two finite substances were the corporeal substance (the body) and the thinking substance (the mind). - body is observable and measurable. The mind on the other hand is not directly observable other than the person who owns it. Also, since the body is extended in three dimensional space, it can be divided into specific parts, the mind however does not occupy space and cannot be divided. The nature of the body according to Descartes was that, unlike the mind it was divisible. Augustine of Hippo: -human freedom and divine providence Augustine: -Latin philosopher who was generally considered one of the greatest thinkers of all times -divine providence is gods intervention in the world - believed that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom Pierre Simon de Laplace Absolute Determinism: Argues that all events are connected with previous one shy the 'tie' of universal causation. There are two important observations that the then proceeds to make.1) ince the universe is a completeand all-encompassing system, any belief that things come about independently, or by chance, is simply due to our ignorance of the causes. He cites the appearance of comets, formerly supposed to be supernatural portents, but now (through the work of mathematical physicists like Halley) shown to be regular and predictable,part of the deterministic system of the universe 2) Laplace insists that human actions too are all part of the deterministic system. Any belief in freedom of 'indifference' (a supposed contra-causal power to choose between two options in an utterly undetermined way)is an illusion Being and Nothingness book by Jeal Paul Sartre, -main purpose is to assert the individual's existence as prior to the individual's essence. Sartre's overriding concern in writing Being and Nothingness was to demonstrate that free will exists - Born into the material reality of one's body, in a material universe, one finds oneself inserted into being. Consciousness has the ability to conceptualize possibilities, and to make them appear, or to annihilate them. Sartre outlines the binary distinction that dominates the rest of Being and Nothingness: the distinction between unconscious being and conscious being -Sartre is defining characteristic of the for-itself. A tree is a tree and lacks the ability to change or create its being. Man, on the other hand, makes himself by acting in the world. Instead of simply being, as the object-in-itself does, man, as an object-for-itself, must actuate his own being -related truth that the being-for-itself possesses meaning only through its perpetual foray into the unknown future - man is not essentially what one might describe him as now. For example, if he is a teacher, he is not a teacher in the way that a rock, as a being-in-itself, is a rock. In truth, the man is never an essence, no matter how much he strives at self-essentialism. The way he interprets his past and foresees his future is itself a series of choices. - explains that as a conscious being, the for-itself recognizes what it is not: it is not a being-in- itself. Through the awareness of what it is not, the for-itself becomes what it is: a nothingness, wholly free in the world - human can never know being as it truly is, for to do that, one would have to be the thing itself. To know a rock, we have to be the rock Henri Bergson: perception of change -french phi
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