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PHL 603 (2)

Midterm 1 notes Notes in class and from articles that cover material up to the first midterm

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PHL 603
Paul Raymont

Descriptive – how things are (what is the case) Prescriptive (ethics) – how things should be (what ought to be the case) - The ought of ethics ( morality) - The ought of prudence – regard to one’s own interests ( conditional/”ify” in nature) Egoism – all people are motivated ultimately by only self interest Altruism – action that has no selfish payback Cultural relativism - moral standards are created by each culture. A person ought to act in accord with their cultures standards Utilitarianism – the good determines the right, greatest good for the greatest number of people - Act always to maximize the good (happiness) and minimize the bad (suffering) - Bentham, J.S. Mill - Trolley case, do you hit the switch - Objection to utilitarianism: how do we measure happiness/ misury Deontology – emphasis on following moral rules, regardless of consequences Immanuel Kant- categorical imperative – standard of rationality from which all moral requirements are derived - capacity for free rational (autonomy) agency - Always treat humanity as an end (in itself) and not solely as a means to an end - Two ways to value something –1. Instrumental – means to an end 2. Intrinsic – end within itself Autonomy – guide one’s life based on their own law Paternalism – to compel someone to do something for their own sake/benefit (seat belt law) Moral agent – has rights and duties Mere moral patient – has rights but no duties Nozick - Utilitarianism for animals, Kantianism for humans Categories to determine humans (moral patients) from non humans - Sentience – capacity to feel pain/pleasure - Self consciousness - Rationality – shouldn’t be in relation to ones right Speciesiem – the features that give it moral rights are its membership in our species Peter singer Animal rights activist criticizes speciest - Person has full moral worth – rights, may not be sacrificed for others benefit - Non-human animals – they have moral interest but may be sacrificed - Inanimate objects – no inherent moral rights - Nozick has a mixed view - Humans matter more than animals in moral terms because our autonomy is different - Humans can guide their lives based on long term goals - Objection to utilitarianism: experience machine Grey Anth
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