PHL 101 – SAMPLE MID-TERM EXAM
I. True or False?
1) If something is valuable only because of its consequences, its value is merely intrinsic. F – When
something is valuable in this way, its value is merely extrinsic.
2) Socrates’ attempt to discover the nature of morality depends on the assumption that individuals and
societies can be morally evaluated by reference to a single standard. T – He’s trying to discover this by
looking at how morality develops in a society. If there are different standards of morality for
individuals as opposed to societies, the results of his inquiry won’t apply to morality in individuals.
3) Socrates’ principle of specialization is this: if you specialize in a given art, you must also be an expert
in whatever is contrary to that art. (For example, doctors must be experts not only in preventing disease
but also in “secretly inducing” it.) F – Socrates does say this, early on, but this is not the principle of
specialization. The principle of specialization = the principle that people should perform only the
one role in society for which they are naturally suited. (So, for example, people suited to guarding
the community should specialize in doing that. They shouldn’t be both guardians and farmers, or
guardians and merchants.)
4) Socrates says that an expert (in the strict sense of the term) is concerned only with the interest of the
weaker party over which he has power. T – This was how he attacked Thrasymachus’s claim that
rulers in the strict or precise sense of the term are concerned with their own interests only, and not
concerned with what is in the interest of the people they rule.
5) This claim of Socrates is meant to imply that rulers (in the strict sense) are never concerned with what
is in their own interest. T - It’s meant to imply this because this is how Socrates hopes to refute
6) According to Socrates, a completely immoral community is impossible (because it would cease to be a
community at all). T – Remember his example of a gang of thieves: if they weren’t at least somewhat
fair in dealing with each other, they couldn’t co-ordinate themselves to carry out their thievery.
This is meant to illustrate his view that immorality depends on morality. A person or a community
has to be somewhat moral to function at all. Immorality is possible only on that basis.
7) Cephalus says that he’s happy in his old age because it has freed him from the intense desires he
experienced as a young man. T