PHL 333 Final: PHL333-2

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Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHL 333
Professor
Sasa Stankovic

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Immanuel Kant- Idea for a universal history from a cosmopolitan point of view
Notes:
Metaphysical point of view? Freedom of the will, its appearances, which are human actions,
every other natural event are determined by universal laws. “Free will of man” influences parts
of our lives. *My understanding*, things happen for a reason and nature will eventually
run its course, influencing our lives and decisions. The free will of man pushes us to make
decisions, but in the end nature decides our fate.
→ Thesis: All natural capacities of a creature are destined to evolve completely to their natural
end.
An organ that is of no use, an arrangement that does not achieve its purpose, are contradictions in
the teleological theory of nature. Teleological: is the philosophical study of nature by attempting
to describe things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle, or goal. A purpose that
is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic. A blind chance takes the
place of the guiding thread of reason.
→ Second Thesis: in man those natural capacities which are directed to the use of his reason are
to be fully developed only in the race, not in the individual. Reason itself does not work
instinctively, but requires trial, practice and instruction in order gradually to progress from one
level of insight to another. *you must learn in order to have a rational form of reasoning.* A
single man would have to live excessively long in order to learn to make full use of all his
natural capacities. Generations pass down enlightened ideas to its successor in order to bring the
seeds of enlightenment to that degree of development in our race[human race] which is
completely suitable for nature's purpose.
→ Third Thesis: Nature has willed that man should, by himself, produce everything that goes
beyond the mechanical ordering of his animal existence, and that he should partake of no other
happiness or perfection than that which he himself, independently of instinct has created by his
own reason. *You create your own destiny, and your happiness depends on your own thoughts
and how you govern your mind. *
Nature does nothing in vain. Giving man reason and the freedom of which depends upon it is a
reflection of nature’s purpose. Kant refers to nature as a female. Man was not to be guided by
instinct, neutered or instructed, he should bring forth everything out of his own resources.
Securing all the things man does in their lifetime should be done with their hands, they must
work to achieve the pleasantries of life. Nature does not provide the insights to achieve these
things, man must work for them. Nature has moved with the strictest parsimony, a reluctance to
use resources. He should live well, but only that he should work himself upward so as to make
himself, through his own actions, worthy of life and of well-being. Earlier generations appear to
carry through their toilsome labor only for the sake of the later. * work hard to help their future*
A foundation for the generations to come after. The later generations would then be set up for
life much better than the earlier generations, it is as if those generations worked so hard, just for
the later generations to work much less.
→ Fourth Thesis: the means of employed by nature to bring about the development of all the
capacities of men is their antagonism in society, so far as this is, in the end cause of a lawful
order among men. Antagonist is meant the unsocial sociability of men, their propensity[ an
inclination or natural tendency to behave in a particular way] to enter into society, bound
together with a mutual opposition that constantly is a threat to society. Man has an inclination to
associate himself with others, he feels himself to be more than man, as more than the developed
form of his natural capacities. He isolates himself based on his want to have everything
according to his own wish. “This opposition it is which awakens all his powers, brings him to
conquer his inclination to laziness and, propelled by vainglory, lust for power, and avarice, to
achieve a rank among his fellows whom he cannot tolerate but from whom he cannot withdraw.”
Culture, which consists in the social worth of man. Heartless competitive vanity, for the
insatiable desire to possess and to rule. Without these all the excellent natural capacities of
humanity would forever sleep, undeveloped. *Good things arise from people who question and
challenge themselves and others, opposition creates questions which develops society.*
→ Fifth Thesis: The great problem for the human race, to the solution of which nature drives
man, is the achievement of a universal civic society[ civic society is a voluntary body or society
which aims to represent the needs of a local community.] which administers law among men.
The development of all the capacities which can be achieved by mankind is only achievable in a
civic society, a society with the greatest freedom. Mutual opposition among the members. Nature
demands that humankind should itself achieve this goal like all its other destined goals. Nature
can achieve her other purposes for mankind when a civic society is achieved. Need forces men.
“It is just the same with trees in a forest: each needs the others, since each in seeking to take the
air and sunlight from others must strive upward, and thereby each realizes a beautiful, straight
stature, while those that live in isolated freedom put out branches at random and grow stunted,
crooked, and twisted.”
→ Sixth Thesis: This problem is the most difficult and the last to be solved by mankind.
Man is an animal which, if it lives among others of its kind, requires a master. These masters are
usually selfish, putting there own personal gain over the freedom of others. A master needs a
master, humankind needs someone to look to for guidance.
→ Seventh Thesis: The problem of establishing a perfect civic constitution is dependent upon the
problem of a lawful external relation among states and cannot be solved without a solution of the
latter problem.
Commonwealth. The same unsociability which drives man to this causes any single
commonwealth to stand in unrestricted freedom in relation to others. “consequently, each of
them must expect from another precisely the evil which oppressed the individuals and forced
them to enter into a lawful civic state.” Through war through the taxing and never ending
accumulation of armament[military weapons and equipment.] through the want which any state
even in peacetime must suffer internally. Nature forces man to make inadequate and tentative
attempts, after devastation, revolutions and exhaustion she brings them to that which reason
could have told them at the beginning and with far less work, which is to change from the
lawless condition of savages to a league of nations. United power acting according to decisions
reached under the laws for their united will. Wars happen to establish new relations among
states, and through the destruction or dismemberment of all of them to create new political
bodies. EIther internally or externally cannot maintain themselves and must thus suffer like
revolutions. Civic constitution and common agreement and legislation in external affairs, a state
is created which like a civic commonwealth, can maintain itself automatically. “Is it reasonable
to assume a purposiveness in all the parts of nature and to deny it to the whole?”
Purposiveness:having, serving, or done with a purpose. Purposeless savagery held back the
development of the capacities of our race. But it pushed the race into civic order in which
capacities could be further developed. With the evils that arise our race is forced to find
opposition of states. This is a consequence of their freedom, a law of equilibrium[a state in which
opposing forces or influences are balanced.] and a united power to give it effect. “Until this last
step to a union of states is taken, which is the halfway mark in the development of mankind,
human nature must suffer the cruelest hardships under the guise of external well-being” We are
civilized, perhaps too much for our own good. The ideal of morality belongs to culture.
Simulacrum: an image or representation of someone or something
→ Eighth Thesis: the history of mankind can be seen, in the large, as the realization of nature's
secret plan to bring forth a perfectly constituted state as the only condition in which the
capacities of mankind can be fully developed, and also bring forth that external relation among
states which is perfectly adequate to this end.
Corollary: a proposition that follows a form ( and is often appended to) one already proved
“Does Nature reveal anything of a path to this end? And I say: She reveals something, but very
little.” Human nature is constituted, we cannot be indifferent to the most remote epoch[a period
of time in history or a person's life, typically one marked by notable events or particular
characteristics. the beginning of a distinctive period in the history of someone or something.] our
race may come to, if only we may expect it with certainty. At present, states are in such an
artificial relation to each other that none of them can neglect its internal cultural development
without losing power and influence among the others. “Enlightenment comes gradually, with
intermittent folly and caprice, as a great good which must finally save men from the selfish
aggrandizement of their masters, always assuming that the latter know their own interest. The
impact of any revolution on all states on our continent, so closely knit together through
commerce, will be so obvious that the other states, driven by their own danger but without any
legal basis, will offer themselves as arbiters, and thus they will prepare the way for a distant
international government for which there is no precedent in world history. a universal
cosmopolitan condition, which Nature has as her ultimate purpose, will come into being as the
womb wherein all the original capacities of the human race can develop.”
→ Ninth Thesis: a philosophical attempt to work out a universal history according to a natural
plan directed to achieving the civic union of the human race must be regarded as possible and,

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Description
Immanuel Kant Idea for a universal history from a cosmopolitan point of view Notes: Metaphysical point of view? Freedom of the will, its appearances, which are human actions, every other natural event are determined by universal laws. Free will of man influences parts of our lives. *My understanding*, things happen for a reason and nature will eventually run its course, influencing our lives and decisions. The free will of man pushes us to make decisions, but in the end nature decides our fate. Thesis: All natural capacities of a creature are destined to evolve completely to their natural end. An organ that is of no use, an arrangement that does not achieve its purpose, are contradictions in the teleological theory of nature. Teleological: is the philosophical study of nature by attempting to describe things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle, or goal. A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork, is called extrinsic. A blind chance takes the place of the guiding thread of reason. Second Thesis: in man those natural capacities which are directed to the use of his reason are to be fully developed only in the race, not in the individual. Reason itself does not work instinctively, but requires trial, practice and instruction in order gradually to progress from one level of insight to another. *you must learn in order to have a rational form of reasoning.* A single man would have to live excessively long in order to learn to make full use of all his natural capacities. Generations pass down enlightened ideas to its successor in order to bring the seeds of enlightenment to that degree of development in our race[human race] which is completely suitable for natures purpose. Third Thesis: Nature has willed that man should, by himself, produce everything that goes beyond the mechanical ordering of his animal existence, and that he should partake of no other happiness or perfection than that which he himself, independently of instinct has created by his own reason. *You create your own destiny, and your happiness depends on your own thoughts and how you govern your mind. * Nature does nothing in vain. Giving man reason and the freedom of which depends upon it is a reflection of natures purpose. Kant refers to nature as a female. Man was not to be guided by instinct, neutered or instructed, he should bring forth everything out of his own resources. Securing all the things man does in their lifetime should be done with their hands, they must work to achieve the pleasantries of life. Nature does not provide the insights to achieve these things, man must work for them. Nature has moved with the strictest parsimony, a reluctance to use resources. He should live well, but only that he should work himself upward so as to make himself, through his own actions, worthy of life and of wellbeing. Earlier generations appear to carry through their toilsome labor only for the sake of the later. * work hard to help their future* A foundation for the generations to come after. The later generations would then be set up for life much better than the earlier generations, it is as if those generations worked so hard, just for the later generations to work much less. Fourth Thesis: the means of employed by nature to bring about the development of all the capacities of men is their antagonism in society, so far as this is, in the end cause of a lawful order among men. Antagonist is meant the unsocial sociability of men, their propensity[ an inclination or natural tendency to behave in a particular way] to enter into society, bound together with a mutual opposition that constantly is a threat to society. Man has an inclination to associate himself with others, he feels himself to be more than man, as more than the developed form of his natural capacities. He isolates himself based on his want to have everything according to his own wish. This opposition it is which awakens all his powers, brings him to conquer his inclination to laziness and, propelled by vainglory, lust for power, and avarice, to achieve a rank among his fellows whom he cannot tolerate but from whom he cannot withdraw. Culture, which consists in the social worth of man. Heartless competitive vanity, for the insatiable desire to possess and to rule. Without these all the excellent natural capacities of humanity would forever sleep, undeveloped. *Good things arise from people who question and challenge themselves and others, opposition creates questions which develops society.* Fifth Thesis: The great problem for the human race, to the solution of which nature drives man, is the achievement of a universal civic society[ civic society is a voluntary body or society which aims to represent the needs of a local community.] which administers law among men. The development of all the capacities which can be achieved by mankind is only achievable in a civic society, a society with the greatest freedom. Mutual opposition among the members. Nature demands that humankind should itself achieve this goal like all its other destined goals. Nature can achieve her other purposes for mankind when a civic society is achieved. Need forces men. It is just the same with trees in a forest: each needs the others, since each in seeking to take the air and sunlight from others must strive upward, and thereby each realizes a beautiful, straight stature, while those that live in isolated freedom put out branches at random and grow stunted, crooked, and twisted. Sixth Thesis: This problem is the most difficult and the last to be solved by mankind. Man is an animal which, if it lives among others of its kind, requires a master. These masters are usually selfish, putting there own personal gain over the freedom of others. A master needs a master, humankind needs someone to look to for guidance. Seventh Thesis: The problem of establishing a perfect civic constitution is dependent upon the problem of a lawful external relation among states and cannot be solved without a solution of the latter problem. Commonwealth. The same unsociability which drives man to this causes any single commonwealth to stand in unrestricted freedom in relation to others. consequently, each of them must expect from another precisely the evil which oppressed the individuals and forced them to enter into a lawful civic state. Through war through the taxing and never ending accumulation of armament[military weapons and equipment.] through the want which any state even in peacetime must suffer internally. Nature forces man to make inadequate and tentative attempts, after devastation, revolutions and exhaustion she brings them to that which reasoncould have told them at the beginning and with far less work, which is to change from the lawless condition of savages to a league of nations. United power acting according to decisions reached under the laws for their united will. Wars happen to establish new relations among states, and through the destruction or dismemberment of all of them to create new political bodies. EIther internally or externally cannot maintain themselves and must thus suffer like revolutions. Civic constitution and common agreement and legislation in external affairs, a state is created which like a civic commonwealth, can maintain itself automatically. Is it reasonable to assume a purposiveness in all the parts of nature and to deny it to the whole? Purposiveness:having, serving, or done with a purpose. Purposeless savagery held back the development of the capacities of our race. But it pushed the race into civic order in which capacities could be further developed. With the evils that arise our race is forced to find opposition of states. This is a consequence of their freedom, a law of equilibrium[a state in which opposing forces or influences are balanced.] and a united power to give it effect. Until this last step to a union of states is taken, which is the halfway mark in the development of mankind, human nature must suffer the cruelest hardships under the guise of external wellbeing We are civilized, perhaps too much for our own good. The ideal of morality belongs to culture. Simulacrum: an image or representation of someone or something Eighth Thesis: the history of mankind can be seen, in the large, as the realization of natures secret plan to bring forth a perfectly constituted state as the only condition in which the capacities of mankind can be fully developed, and also bring forth that external relation among states which is perfectly adequate to this end. Corollary: a proposition that follows a form ( and is often appended to) one already proved Does Nature reveal anything of a path to this end? And I say: She reveals something, but very little. Human nature is constituted, we cannot be indifferent to the most remote epoch[a period of time in history or a persons life, typically one marked by notable events or particular characteristics. the beginning of a distinctive period in the history of someone or something.] our race may come to, if only we may expect it with certainty. At present, states are in such an artificial relation to each other that none of them can neglect its internal cultural development without losing power and influence among the others. Enlightenment comes gradually, with intermittent folly and caprice, as a great good which must finally save men from the selfish aggrandizement of their masters, always assuming that the latter know their own interest. The impact of any revolution on all states on our continent, so closely knit together through commerce, will be so obvious that the other states, driven by their own danger but without any legal basis, will offer themselves as arbiters, and thus they will prepare the way for a distant international government for which there is no precedent in world history. a universal cosmopolitan condition, which Nature has as her ultimate purpose, will come into being as the womb wherein all the original capacities of the human race can develop. Ninth Thesis: a philosophical attempt to work out a universal history according to a natural plan directed to achieving the civic union of the human race must be regarded as possible and,
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