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PCS 181
Margaret Buckby

The scientific Methodbody of techniques for investigating phenomena acquiring new knowledge or correcting and integrating previous knowledge 1 Observation 2 Hypothesis 3 Experiment 4 Conclusion 5 Reproducibility Someone else can repeat the experiment Electromagnetic radiation often abbreviated EM radiation or EMR is a phenomenon that takes the form of selfpropagating waves in a vacuum or in matter It consists of electric and magnetic field components which oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy propagation Electromagnetic radiation is classified into several types according to the frequency of its wave these types include in order of increasing frequency and decreasing wavelength radio waves microwaves terahertz radiation infrared radiation visible light ultraviolet radiation Xrays and gamma rays A small and somewhat variable window of frequencies is sensed by the eyes of various organisms this is what we call the visible spectrum or light EM radiation carries energy and momentum that may be imparted to matter with which it interacts Wave propagation is any of the ways in which waves travel Oscillation is the repetitive variation typically in time of some measure about a central value often a point of equilibrium or between two or more different states vacuum is a volume of space that is essentially empty of matter such that its gaseous pressure is much less than atmospheric pressureThe electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic 1radiation The electromagnetic spectrum of an object is the characteristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by that particular object The electromagnetic spectrum extends from below frequencies used for modern radio to gamma radiation at the shortwavelength end covering wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atom The long wavelength limit is the size of the universe itself while it is thought that the short wavelength limit is in the vicinity of the Planck length although in principle the spectrum is infinite and continuous EM waves are typically described by any of the following three physical properties the frequency f wavelengthor photon energy E EM radiation is classified by wavelength into radio wave microwave infrared the visible region we perceive as light ultraviolet Xrays and gamma rays The behavior of EM radiation depends on its
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