POL 128 Study Guide - Final Guide: War Measures Act, Maurice Duplessis, Pierre Laporte

Politics and Public Administration
Course Code
POL 128
Laurinda Hartt- Fournier
Study Guide

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Dichotomize - divide into two opposing groups or kinds
you’re either with us or against us
Marginalization - the importance of attention that needs to be given to actual social issues such as
homelessness, poverty, the environment
Interpellation The process whereby those in power educate and constrain those not in power, the
masses, from taking power
Repressive State Apparatuses (RSA) They exist to reinforce accepted norms and take action against
those who don’t follow the norms. Example: Government, police, military, the courts, prisons
Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA) To teach society norms and beliefs that are one sided. Example:
Family, school, church, political parties, the media (film, television, radio, internet etc.)
ISA & RSA Applied to movies
Les Ordres: Political parties, government, police, military, prison
Maurice Richard: Family, media
Double Happiness: Family, media(?)
Kanehsatake: Media, government, police, military
Traits of CHNFS
1. Narrative - Dramatization of reality; uses third person perspective; presents an ideal fantasy
rather than actual realities of society
2. Linear Narrative Story moves through several crisis to a climax and then a conclusion which
includes a clear resolution of all major problems (Happy Endings)
3. Hero Vs. Villain Usually males; Good vs. Evil; deep problems of society being resolved through
the actions of hero
4. Product of Hollywood studio system Its familiar conventions and traditions which are used to
attract large audiences and offend the least
Film Genres Conventions that audience is familiar with in which they come in
expecting to see
The star system Use of popular movie stars to bring in crowds
Production Code Hollywood’s Self-Censorship in movies through 1934-1968
Rating Systems introduced in 1968 to protect viewers of objectionable material, but in
fact it was used as a public relations tool
5. Films are focused on singular an individual - even films where teams are prevalent, singular
characters, or a singular character “saves the day”
6. Repetitive Norms Society’s norms are reproduced and reinforced rather than be challenged.
They choose not to challenge the norms because they will offend audiences and thus reduce
revenues and create controversy, possible government interference even.

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7. White Power White middle class males are privileged rather than other races, class and
genders. Basically meaning white guys who aren’t poor have more movies made about them.
CHNFS Applied to movies:
Les Ordres:
- 1. goes against being narrative based
- 2. it is linear narrative
- 3. The villain is actually the "good guys" (police)
- 5. collective action as a means of change > individual action
Maurice Richard:
- 1. presents reality > fantasy
- 2. linear narrative: happy ending
- 3. individual hero (Maurice)
- 5. individual action (Taking FLAK for everyone
- 6. shows hegemonic values being changed
- 7. shows dominance of white male (English) class
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General
Global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled.
It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties,
regional human rights instruments, national constitutions and laws.
Violated Rights in Les Ordres
1 & 2 humans born free and equal with no discrimination (race, sex, political (French reality))
5 No torture, inhuman, degrading treatment (mind games of execution to Richard, Claudette
strip search, uneatable food)
6 Right to recognition as a person before law (treated like animals in night strip searches)
10 Full equality to fair public hearing (held without charges or hearings)
11(2) innocent until proven guilty
12 No interference and attacks with privacy, family, home (arrested in front of children,
Claudette’s home trashed)
Why it was not considered political enough by some?
I'm not really sure about this one. In the reading about it in the course pack, the author (Christopher E.
Gittings; Reading #7) writes about the role of class within the characters. He never outright calls it non-
political enough, but there's no one else we really discussed about criticizing the movie.
Significant character things for Les Ordres:

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Clermont drives a taxi (which is one of the methods the FLQ kidnapped people). He breaks down
and cries in his prison cell, and although the camera watches him, it then moves away and gives
him his privacy (unlike the government and prison at the time). His father dies, and when he
finally is able to visit the body, the film is still in colour (which is reserved for scenes in the
prison). It's implied that although he's on the outside, because of the security watching him, he
is still not free. When he finally gets released from the prison, one of the prison workers
mispronounces his name, and he angrily corrects him. This signifies his regained identity.
Richard is tortured. He is threatened by the guards and told that he'll be shot. They just screw
with him and cause him mental anguish. Then, he is put in an isolation chamber.
When Marie is released, she gets upset because she's the only woman of the group that she's
with that is released. Emphasizes collective action and affiliation.
Three Films made regarding October Crisis:
Les Ordres (Orderers) Made in 1974 about the incarceration of innocent civilians during the
1970 October Crisis. The film tells the story of five of those incarcerated civilians. It is a reflexive
documentary employing actors to recreate the experiences of fifty Québécois interned without
charge under the War Measurement Act.
o Michel Brault He is a film producer. The leading figure of Direct Cinema and cinéma
vérité which were characteristic of the French half of the National Film Board of Canada
in the 1960s. Brault was a pioneer of the hand-held camera aesthetic. He Directed Les
Octobre Made in 1994, tells a fictionalized version of the October Crisis from the point of view
of the the FLQ terrorists (Chénier Cell) who kidnapped and murdered Quebec minister and
Deputy Premier Pierre Laporte. The Quebec movie is directed by filmmaker and noted separatist
Pierre Falardeau (Former Member of the Cell). It has elements of documentary film making
Action: The October Crisis of 1970 Traces the events and political and social reactions and
circumstances surrounding the crisis. Compiled from news and other films, it shows
independence movements past and present, and their leaders; it reflects the mingled relief,
dismay, defiance, when the Canadian army came to Montréal; and it shows how political leaders
viewed the intervention. It is an expository documentary on the October Crisis. It was directed
by Robin Spry
Les Ordres Characters:
Clermont Boudreau (husband;/father, work/union steward, taxi driver)
Marie Boudreau (housewife/mother)
Claudette Dusseault (social worker)
Richard Lavoie (unemployed househusband/father)
Dr. Jean Marie Beauchemin (physician)
Richard and Clermont's children are the ones that lose their rights. Richard's sons are left without a
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