POL 128 Study Guide - Final Guide: Elijah Harper, Canadian Indian Residential School System, Canadian Confederation

Politics and Public Administration
Course Code
POL 128
Laurinda Hartt- Fournier
Study Guide

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POL 128 Final Exam Notes
Ethnographiable vs. Historifiable
In the process of decolonization, we see the people who were ethnographiable are now writing the
history, tells the history of Canada through the point of view of Elijah Harper and First Nations
Historifiable people: Are the ones that USED to be the ones in Ethnographiable
Ethnographiable people are now writing the history...
What’s the point of view, who’s the Historifiable people in Elijah? It won’t be the white people,
IT WILL BE THE FIRST NATIONS (Elijah: Aboriginals, Kanehsthahwa: Mohawks)
White people are treating as Aliens
Historifiable: Traditionally, it was white, anglo-saxophone, heterosexual male
If you didn’t fit in this category you were considered an ‘other’
BUT with Elijah we get the point that THEY are the ones who are writing history
History of Canada from the Aboriginal point of view (done with humour, style, and flare)
In Elijah the Historifiable voice is the Aboriginal people of Canada
When White people are presented they are considered strange, all the things in the media First
Nations people have been portrayed as when the White man was making the films
This is an example of formerly ethnographiable group, defined by white histories, as marginal, as
others, as alien, is now telling the history,
o The Historifiable view of the aboriginal, the white people are ethnographiablized
o How white people babble, white women say good bye to their husbands at the same
time, showing how Aboriginals were represented by the whites
Ideological Voice: The voice we heard very little from. It is the perspective conveyed in a film that is
particularly that we have heard little of... (Ex: LGBT community, in a society that has ‘othered’ them)
Les Ordres
One of the guards say “Au revoir” and Clermont interprets it as saying “See you later” and he
replies as “You will never see me again”
Connotatively he has his ideological power/voice back when he leaves the prison
The voice is the point of view of culture that experienced terrible loss of human rights, terrible
loss of colonized from British
Aboriginals of Canada (more male perspective)
Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance
Mohawk people
In the Shadow of Gold Mountain
Female, Chinese
African (Black) Canadians the non-stereotyped side

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“Taking back” (Decolonization) and “Returning the gaze” (of the colonizers) as decolonizing tools
(Relates to using the tools that the colonizers used against them to their advantage...)
Colonization: Born out of what happened in the world in the 1500’s when nations sent explorers out
into the wilderness, they weren’t just discovers, they were the forerunners of colonizers, the goals of
then nations was to discover countries and have the most power
o Regarding ideological colonization; Colonization of the entertainment industry with the
American presence
o Active Colonization: Take over someone’s country and push them aside (render them
marginalized) hegemonic view
o Echo of colonization of what was experienced in the 1700’s where New France was given to the
BritishThe French were the first to be in charge
Decolonization (taking back): It’s not JUST standing up for your rights, it means using the tool of the
colonizer to regain who you are, to throw off colonization, using the term INDIAN to describe yourself,
taking the colonizer term of INDIAN and being proud to call yourself that (something taking something
that colonized you and oppressed you)
Exclusion Act
In Shadow of the Gold Karen Cho is also taking back JULY 1st when it was the day we became a
Confederation/Nation, on July 1st 1923, the exclusion act made a statement about who really
didn’t belong in Canada
Major form of taking back, THEY are writing the history
The Chinese Exclusion Act (1923), repealed in 1947 (why and with what result?)
Effective July 1st 1923 on Dominion Day, the Chinese were the first and only people in Canada to be
excluded because of race no Chinese were allowed to enter (immigrate) to Canada after the 1923 act
1923 stopped the head tax because they excluded the Chinese from entering Canada unless you
were a doctor or proved you had a future (poor were excluded)
The reason for its repeal was when the Chinese enlisted in the Army to show the government their
loyalty and dedication to Canada they knew after coming back from the war against Japan they would
have solid credentials and demand their rights and privileges in the country. Only after the war was
when many families were re-united, immigrants did not have to live in fear of being deported and in
general Chinese were treated as actual citizens.
The Campaign for Redress
The idea behind the campaign was demanding an apology from the Canadian government and redress
for the effects of the Chinese Immigration Acts. Head tax payers wanted compensation for not only the
large sum of money (equivalent to 1 billion dollars) that was taken away but the tearing apart of
families, where families never grew up together as a ‘family.’
Effort to get the government to apologize for the policy that was clearly racist and get them to
return some if not all of the money from the Head-Tax
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