POL 128 Study Guide - Final Guide: Racialization, Specularity, World Trade Organization

Politics and Public Administration
Course Code
POL 128
Matthew Flisfeder
Study Guide

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POL128 Lecture #1
-In class, focus towards whose/which interest is the bias directed and not what is bias and
what isn’t + are these interests/bias serve my belief or does serve someone else’s belief
-Course takes critical approach to examining the films
POL128 Lecture #2
Democracy and the Media
-Everyone is treated the same
-Equality vs. Equity
Equality  We all began in the same position and equality (equality from the start)
Equity  We don’t all start in the same position of equality and freedom (equality
from the outcome)
-Role of the media
Acts as a informant to give the public information and knowledge about what is
going on with the world
-Noam Chromsky
“One conception of democracy has it that a democratic society is one in which the
public has the means to participate in some meaningful way in the management of
their own affairs and the means of...
An alternative conception of democracy is that the public must be banded from
managing of their own affairs and the mans of information must be kept narrowly
and rigidly controlled. That may sound like an odd conception of democracy, but
it’s important to understand that it is the prevailing conception”
Film Excerpts (Film 1; A-Love for Democracy and Film 2;The Pervert’s Guide to
-Plutonomy  The society controlled by the top 1% of wealth
POL128 Lecture #3
-Mocumentary  Fake documentary
Film Studies and the Politics of the 60s
-Rise of feminism movement
-Gay liberation movement
-Film directors are starting to realize how to use cinema to dominate the society’s
Comolli and Narboni: Cinema/Ideology/Criticism
-“Every film is political, inasmuch as it is determined by the ideology which produces it”
All media will portray some kind of view of the world of the producer

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-“The cinema is all the more thoroughly and completely determined because unlike other
arts or ideological systems its very manufacture mobilizes powerful economic forces in a
way that the production of literature does not”
Making film is expensive which means pooling together economic sources and
financial sources, the film will portray reality and how the economy works
They claim that every film is political and critics ideology of the real world
-“Cinema “reproduces” reality...but “reality” is nothing but an expression of the
prevailing ideology”
The Matrix Film
-Allows us to grasp a way to see how ideology can mask our reality
-Film allows us to distance ourselves from exploitation and domination of the reality
-Teaches how ideology works in our society
Ideology as “False Consciousness”
-Misrecognizing the source/cause of ones discontent in relations of power and
-Ideology works to remove nuances that expose CONTRADICTIONS that exist in
-The raising of a false problem to the level of a true problem
False ideology makes those who are exploited to neglect the actual problems in
“Symptomatic” Reading
-Revealing the underlying logic that determines what can and cannot be thought within
its framework
-Mode of production
Defined as the way a society is organized to produce goods and services
The set of relations that are involved in how a society produces and reproduces
itself materially (Ex. from feudal society to industrial society to post-industrial
Today, the mode of production is the capitalist production that helps produces a
world view of its culture
-Base/Superstructure & Class Struggle
Class struggle is the result of exploitation in the relations of production
Historical development is the result of class struggles
Socio-economic base shapes society’s superstructure: culture, politics, ideology,
“Every form of production creates its own legal relations, form of government,
Ideology, politics, culture = super structure & base = relations of production,
forces of production
Althusser Ideological State, Apparatuses and “Interpellation”
-Ideological State Apparatuses

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ISAa = Family, church, the media, schools/universities, the market
Interpellation = A process by which individuals are compelled to identify with
the social roles given to them
o“Ideology interpellates individuals as subjects”
o“Ideology represents an imaginary relationship of a subject to its real
conditions of existence”
POL128 Lecture #4
-Something is ideological when it works to hide, mask or veil the contradictions and
problems we have in society
Produces something called the subject  subject = a way of talking about person-
hood, subjective, each one of us
Works on us by determining our subjectivity and tells us what we should think
and believe
-Different categories of ... might be on quiz
-Tries to get us to identify/relate to film in some way
-Ideas, values and beliefs shared by members of a group, culture, nationality, class ETC
-The process by which the set of values and beliefs that blind individuals together in a
society become “naturalized”
-The ideas of the ruling class
-Ideology is often at work in attempts to make false statements sound not only like the
truth but also like common sense
-“false consciousness” = misrecognizing the source/cause of one’s discontent in relations
of power and exploitation; the raising of a false problem to the level of a true problem
Social Darwinism and Survival of the Fittest
-A way to justify and legitimate racism
-Connected to “ideology”
-Describes a process where those with power gain the “consent” of those who do not
have power, or who are ruled/exploited, without the use of violent force
-Domination = Uses direct (Ex. violent) force to maintain the rule of the few over the
Ex. using violence to scare people and obey them
Mode of Production
-“Economic” underpinning of society; composed of the forces and relations of production
-Socioeconomic Formation = A society with a specific mode of production
-Economy = Production, distribution, exchange of goods
-The way humans get the things needed for survival
-Central to how humans organize their societies and construct cultures
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