POG Midterm Study.docx

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Ryerson University
Politics and Public Administration
POG 100
Joerg Wittenbrinck

POG Midterm Study Politics: Activities that involve the making and implementing of collective decisions for a political community; who gets what and how they get it within a community. ie) authoritative government trying to influence people to live healthier lifestyles without making a policy for it The political system includes: -> Inputs that are made by people with their demands, need for resources and support from the government, which passes through the state institutions (collection of values for a society) and comes out through the outputs with decisions, actions and policies. These outputs then travel back to the inputs of people in the community and the cycle starts again with them criticizing what state institutions need to improve on. Power: influencing people to do what they would have otherwise not done before to achieve an objective. It is the relationship between groups and individuals. ie) Your boss can persuade you to vote for a certain candidate during elections by telling you you’re going to get a promotion for doing so. People distinguish power as the ability to force a specific decisions and influence to affect others behaviors. Different types of power: 1) ability to affect decisions 2) ability to ensure no issues arise 3) ability to affect dominant ideas of society Charismatic authority: assumption that leader has supernatural qualities Traditional authority: customs establishing right of a person to rule Common Good: What is good for the entire political community so how prosperous and sustainable the political system is. For those who have an individualistic perspective, people view humans as acting out of self-interest and they believe that people have the freedom to achieve their own self-interest for the best overall result for members of the community ie) pluralist systems: a wide variety of groups all have an equal influence on the government (elections) Empirical and Normative analysis: Empirical analysis is trying to explain the various aspects of politics by using observations and comparisons to develop testable theories about how the policies work; figuring out what is really there, what is happening in the world and why is it happening? ie) how many people complain about their compensations Normative analysis: examines how the community should be governed and what values should be pursued through politics, deliberate the fairness of a policy made; ask should questions and discuss moral values ie) what is the common good? State: an independent self-governing system that has the capability to make binding decisions and rules on the population within a particular territory. It has the power to implement decisions by force if it needs to and is the only organization that can do this. Other organizations need to be empowered by the state in order to make the same kind of decisions. The state vs. society: how the state is in face of individuals and communities The state encompassing its population and territory: how the state interacts with other states as whole countries Requirements to be a state: 1) territory 2) population 3) sovereignty 4) must have monopoly on legitimate use of force Failed states (ie) Somalia -> cannot maintain order within its own people Difference between states and governments: States are more permanent and include federal and provincials governments, court, and police forces as governments constantly change and are a set of institutions that oversee implementation on behalf of the state Sovereignty: principle that countries are to deal with their own internal affairs alone without any interference with outside nations. ie) U.S.A interfering with Syria’s affairs -> Treaty of Westphalia in 1648: responsibility to protect Nation state: sovereign state where people living inside the nation have a sense of being part of the nation. Engaging in nation-building and most countries see themselves as a nation-state. Engage in civic nationalism (shared political values and history of citizens in country) or ethnic nationalism (common ancestry and cultural traditions /language associated with group) to develop a common identity Imagined Community: when people feel that they belong to a community without interacting with anyone within that community or nation (hypothetical instead of real belonging) ie) a fraternity group is real belonging Nation: group of people who have sense of common identity and believe they should be self- governing within their homeland. They believe that they belong together as a community based on culture, ethnicity and language and history and values Nationalists demand: 1) cultural autonomy 2) political autonomy 3) statehood Binational and multinational states: states where two or more nations are composed together and share the same population ie) Europeans are adopting
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