POG225 (TERM & Definitions) NOTES.docx

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Politics and Public Administration
POG 225
Aparna Sundar

Asymmetrical globalization Inequality inscribed deeply in the processes of contemporary globalization is more accurately described as asymmetrical globalizationWhen patterns of contemporary globalization are uneven they are also highly asymmetrical Globalization is not uniformly experienced across all regions countries or communitiesAs an asymmetrical process globalization exhibits a distinctive geography of inclusion and exclusion resulting in clear winners and losers not just between countries but across them For the most affluent it entails a shrinking world of jet travel global television and the World Wide Web but for most it is associated with a sense of disempowermentConsequences of this include Europe being forced to accept American beef by the WTO even though they feel that the product is unsafe this is a result of WTO anti discrimination laws The same decision was given to Jamaica who made a similar claim however the EU used its wealth to pay the fine while Jamaica was forced to import the meat that they felt was unsafe because they did not have the financial power to resist the ruling Non State Actors A term widely used to mean any actor that is not a government There are two categories of non state actors these are transnational actors and international organizations such as the UN This includes transnational companies intergovernmental organizations EU UN NATO NGO and INGOs Amnesty Intl Have the ability to influence decision making in international relationsHave been vital in the human rights movement womens rights and environmental issues work of NGOs and INGOsNone state actors are of a secondary importance in terms of relations between states they affect the relations between states This is known as pluralism which is based on the assumption that all types of actors can affect political outcome International relations are not limited to governments and other actors operate across country boundariesTNCs which are non states actors have been associated with controlling financial flows and loss rdof sovereignty case for 3 world countries with IMF and World Bank Transnational CompaniesTNCsWhen companies have branches or subsidiaries outside of their home country they are transnational companiesTraditionally these companies were in agriculture mining or oil operating in the European empire now they occur in all economic sectors Classic image of TNC is a large company from the USA which has expanded production and sales overseas dominating a global market and exploiting cheap labour in developing countries now TNCs from developing countries are becoming increasingly importantTNCs from developing countries increasingly investing in the developed world eg opposition in USA congress strong enough to block takeover of US oil company UNOCAL
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