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Politics and Public Administration
POL 128
Laurinda Hartt- Fournier

Little Miss Sunshine  American Independent feature film (Indie)  Reproduces, reinforces, and reflects society values of the society but It also challenges societal norms Main Characters breaking Rules  Olive Hoover (Daughter) – Arrives late for contest (contest rules)  Richard Hoover (Father) – Throws away paper work and steals fathers body  Dwayne Hoover (Son) – (is color blind and is breaking rule for being a pilot)  Grandpa Hoover – Does drugs  Sheryl Hoover (Mom) –  Frank Hoover (Brother In-Law) – falls in love with a student Traits of CHNFS 1. Narrative - Dramatization of reality; uses third person perspective; presents an ideal fantasy rather than actual realities of society 2. Linear Narrative – Story moves through several crisis to a climax and then a conclusion which includes a clear resolution of all major problems (Happy Endings) 3. Hero Vs. Villain – Usually males; Good vs. Evil; deep problems of society being resolved through the actions of hero 4. Product of Hollywood studio system – Its familiar conventions and traditions which are used to attract large audiences and offend the least  Film Genres – Conventions that audience is familiar with in which they come in expecting to see  The star system – Use of popular movie stars to bring in crowds  Production Code – Hollywood’s Self-Censorship in movies through 1934-1968  Rating Systems – introduced in 1968 to protect viewers of objectionable material, but in fact it was used as a public relations tool 5. Films are focused on singular an individual - even films where teams are prevalent, singular characters, or a singular character “saves the day” 6. Repetitive Norms – Society’s norms are reproduced and reinforced rather than be challenged. They choose not to challenge the norms because they will offend audiences and thus reduce revenues and create controversy, possible government interference even. 7. White Power – White middle class males are privileged rather than other races, class and genders. Basically meaning white guys who aren’t poor have more movies made about them. Page 1 of 8 Traits in CHNFS of LMS rd 1. Narrative - It’s a story and in 3 person, we are watching 2. Linear Narrative – They start off with several crisis like how the neighbours unable take Olive to the pachent, van not working, grandpa dying, unable to register, and then finally watching her perform and resolve problem with grandpa 3. Hero Vs. Villain – They challenge this by not having one main character but a group and not a villain 4. Product of Hollywood studio system – They used the genre of comedy and the popularity of actor Steve Carell to bring in audiences 5. Films are focused on singular an individual – Olive saves the day by doing the dance at the end bringing family together 6. Repetitive Norms – This is challenged because they don’t reinforce or reproduce norms but actually challenge it throughout the movie 7. White Power – The whole cast was white Louis Althusser – A philosopher and a Marxist cultural critic  Interpellation – The process whereby those in power educate and constrain those not in power, the masses, from taking power o Repressive State Apparatuses (RSA) – They exist to reinforce accepted norms and take action against those who don’t follow the norms. Example: government, police, military, the courts, prisons o Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA) – To teach society norms and beliefs that are one sided. Example: family, school, political parties, the media (Film, television, radio, internet) Symbolism in LMS  VW Bus –reinforces the individual versus collective action...working together for change rather than be separated as individuals  The Horn – They are breaking tradition and they except it; dysfunction of the family.  The Menus - America's obsession with diets and weight House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) – from 1934–1975 it was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives.  From 1934 to 1937, the Special Committee on Un-American Activities Authorized to Investigate Nazi Propaganda and Certain Other Propaganda Activities  After WWII, HUAC’s focus shifts to Hollywood’s supposed infiltration by Communism  Cold War emerges, with fear of former ally Soviet Union and communism escalating; HUAC resumes hearings with a new focus: Communist infiltration of the movie industry. Page 2 of 8 Hegemonic - A system of ideas and beliefs that are held to be normal and natural by members of a given society in a given era  Hegemonic Ideologies are those ideologies which are the leading system of beliefs in a given society at a given time; they are the ones that are predominant ideologies, those ideologies accepted by either the majority of people or by the people in power. Mise-en-scene - expression used in the theatre and film worlds to describe the design aspects of a production; basically everything that appears before the camera and its arrangement like sets, props, actors, costumes, lighting, color, actors movement and positioning on set Pro filmic Elements – can include action, otherwise it is essentially the same as mise-en-scene: it’s what is in front of the camera before filming takes place. After that it is sometimes called the enframed image or simply a shot. Image – Consists of shots, angles, and movement  Shots -demonstrate different aspects of setting, themes and characters o extreme long shots will give viewer picture of entire location o long shots contain landscape but more specific like a building o full shot gives viewer a complete view of the characters  Angles –used to position the viewer so that they can understand the relationships between the characters o low angles will make actors look bigger, dominating o high angles will make actors look lost in a scene or small o bird's eye angle is looking from atop to give indication of setting o eye-level angle is giving equal footing with audience so they feel comfortable with characters  Movement - used to shape meaning o Crane shot - used by composers of films to signify the end of a film or scene. The effect is achieved by the camera being put on a crane that can move upwards o Tracking shot - moves on tracks, used to explore a room to give more detail of a situation Editing - assembles a film together to tell a story; brings parts together Sut Jhally - is a professor of Communication and is a cultural studies scholar in the area of advertising, media, and consumption. He is the producer of several documentaries on media literacy topics .  Founder and executive director of the Media Education Foundation, a non-profit established in 1992 which "produces and distributes video documentaries to encourage critical thinking and debate about the relationship between media ownership, commercial media content, and the democratic demand for free flows of information, diverse representations of ideas and people, and informed citizen participation”  Partipulation – audience participating in its own manipulation Page 3 of 8 The Five Filters 1. Ownership (corporate + concentrated) - Major Corporations own major media outlets and thus shape the media that is put out 2. Advertising - 100% of revenues in mainstream TV come from what advertisers pay them for spots on their shows  advertisers and corporate agencies have managed to guide the media, example: if sponsors don’t like what is going on, they will yank their ads,  if the public don’t like the media, the public may boycott the products advertised on the shows example: Ellen DeGeneres coming out in a sitcom— proctor and gamble pulled their ad 3. Sourcing - continuous flow of information to fill their demand for daily news;  media will really heat up in November, February, and May because these are the months in which ratings are taken  competing against different networks  sources can make stories and media vulnerable; it can underhandedly shape the stories and their delivery 4. Flak - the fear on the part of the corporation that they might get sued by a major corporation or audited by the Government (FCC)  some great journalists do this, but they have to be careful about how to navigate through these filters to get the truth out without getting fired 5. Anti-Communism (Control Factor) - you have to appear pro-American or you’re labeled as a communist  don’t challenge the mainstream image of America otherwise you face being labeled as an enemy of America and American ideals Dichotomize - divide into two opposing groups or kinds  you’re either with us or against
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